Which Type Of Volcano Is Shown In The Image – Volcanoes are often classified by their size and shape (as explained in the Volcanic Landforms section), but they can also be classified by their eruptive habits. In fact, the type of volcanic eruption that occurs plays an important role in the evolution of volcanic terrains, creating an important link between eruptive habit and volcanic structure. In general, eruptions can be classified as pulsating or explosive. Effluent eruptions consist of a flow of basaltic magma that is relatively low in viscosity and gas content. Explosive eruptions are usually associated with magma, which is more viscous and has a higher gas content. Such magma is often destroyed into pyroclastic fragments by explosive gas expansion during an eruption.
In more detailed classification schemes based on the nature of the eruption, volcanic activity and volcanic regions are generally divided into six main types, shown schematically in the diagram. They are listed below in order of increasing explosive power:
Which Type Of Volcano Is Shown In The Image
The Icelandic type is characterized by molten basaltic lava flows flowing from long, parallel fissures. Such eruptions often build lava plateaus.
Volcanic Resources Summary—lassen Volcanic National Park (u.s. National Park Service)
The Hawaiian variety is similar to the Icelandic variety. However, in this case, liquid lava flows from volcanic ridges and radial fissures to form shield volcanoes, which are relatively large and have gentle slopes.
Strombolian eruptions are moderate explosions of rising gases that release glowing lava lumps in short cyclical or near-continuous eruptions. Because of such frequent small eruptions, the Stromboli volcano on the island of Stromboli off the northeast coast of Italy has been called the “Lighthouse of the Mediterranean”.
The Vulcanian type, named after the island of Vulcano near Stromboli, is usually associated with moderate gas explosions containing volcanic ash. This combination creates dark, turbulent eruption clouds that rapidly grow and spread in convoluted shapes.
Pelene eruptions are associated with explosive eruptions described in Lava, Gases, and Other Hazards, a dense mixture of pyroclastic flows, hot volcanic fragments, and gases. Peleine eruptions are named after the 1902 eruption of Mount Pele on the Caribbean island of Martinique. The liquefied slurries produced by these eruptions are heavier than air but less viscous and pour down valleys and slopes at high velocities. As a result, they are very destructive.
Volcanic Vents (u.s. National Park Service)
The Plinian type is a very violent volcanic eruption, exemplified by the eruption of Mount Vesuvius in Italy in 79 CE, which killed the famous Roman scholar Pliny the Elder and was described in an eyewitness account by his nephew, the historian Pliny the Younger. In this type of eruption, gas boiling from the gas-rich magma produces massive, near-continuous jet explosions that concentrate and fragment the magma conduit. The rising gases and volcanic fragments are like a giant rocket blast directed vertically upwards. Plinian eruption clouds rise into the stratosphere and are sometimes produced continuously for several hours. Lightning strikes are frequent due to increased static electricity near Plinian ash clouds, adding another terrifying element to the eruption.
Why are some volcanic eruptions so explosive and others so spectacular but relatively harmless? The answer involves at least four factors: the viscosity of the magma, the viscosity of the magma, the decomposition rate of the magma as it rises toward the surface, and the number of nucleation sites where gases can begin to bubble. Volcanoes associated with convergent plate edges (
Separation volcanism and tectonic activity usually contain high amounts of gas and their magma is very viscous. This mixture is explosive because the gases do not boil easily; Instead, they stick together until the viscous magma reaches a pressure that explodes into fragments. The rate at which pressure is reduced also controls the explosive. If the magma moves slowly toward the surface, its dissolved gases are released slowly and they can escape. During a Plinian-type eruption on Mount Pinatubo, the magma moved very quickly toward the surface, resulting in the retention of many dissolved gases. Finally, the rate at which gases are released from the magma is affected by the number of small crystals that act as nucleation sites where gas bubbles begin to form. More than 40 percent of the magma at Pinatubo was small crystals before the eruption, whereas the percentage of small crystals in the magma at the Hawaiian volcanoes Kilauea and Mauna Loa is much lower (less than 5 percent).
There are many levels and exceptions to the ideal eruption types listed in the previous section, and it is not unusual for an eruption sequence to include more than one type of activity. For example, the eruption of Mount St. Helens from 1980 to 1986 followed a sequence of smaller Vulcan-type eruptions, larger Pele and Plinian eruptions, and finally ejected viscous lava into the lava dome to cap the stake. Different types of volcanic activity are best understood by comparison, and this section compares two particular eruptions – the 1991 eruption of Mount Pinatubo (a classic example of an explosive volcano) and the 1984 eruption of Mauna Loa (an example of an impact volcano).
Scientists Observe 2 New Lava Flows On Mauna Loa, The World’s Largest Active Volcano
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