What Was The Great Upheaval Weegy – The Great Railroad Strike of 1877, sometimes called the Great Uprising, began on July 14 in Martinsburg, West Virginia, after the Baltimore & Ohio Railroad (B&O) cut wages for the third time in a year. The Great Railroad Strike of 1877 was the first strike to spread to several different states in the United States. That strike finally ended 52 days after being crushed by unofficial militias, the National Guard, and federal troops. Due to economic problems and wage pressures from the railroads, workers went on strike in many other cities, in New York, Pennsylvania and Maryland, and in Illinois and Missouri. About 100 people died during the riots across the country. In Martinsburg, Pittsburgh, Philadelphia, and other cities, the workers burned and destroyed both material structures and railroad stock – locomotives and cars. Some local residents feared that the workers would rise up in an uprising similar to the Paris Commune of 1871, while others joined forces against the railroads.
At that time, workers were not represented by trade unions. City and state governments were supported by unofficial militias, the National Guard, federal troops, and private militias organized by the railroads that fought against the workers. The unrest was widespread, and at its peak supported around 100,000 workers. Thanks to the intervention of federal troops in several places, most of the strikes were suppressed in early August. Labor continued to work to unionize for better wages and conditions. Fearing social unrest, many cities took up arms in support of local National Guard units; These audacious buildings still bear the brunt of attempts to quell the labor unrest of the period.
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After drawing public attention to workers’ wages and working conditions, the B&O formed the Workmen’s Relief Society in 1880 to provide death benefits and some medical care. In 1884, he created a pension plan for employees. Other improvements were implemented later.
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The Long Depression, which began in the United States with the financial panic of 1873 and lasted 65 months, was the longest economic recession in American history, including the better-known Great Depression, which lasted 45 months in the 1930s.
The failure of Jay Cooke’s bank in New York was quickly followed by the Gray Clues, and this set off a chain reaction of bank failures, temporarily shutting down the New York stock market.
Unemployment skyrocketed, reaching 14 percent by 1876, there was much more underemployment, and overall wages fell to 45 percent of their previous levels.
National construction of new railroad lines declined from 7,500 miles of track in 1872 to only 1,600 miles in 1875,
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The end of the Civil War marked a boom in railroad construction, with approximately 35,000 miles (55,000 kilometers) of new track laid from coast to coast between 1866 and 1873. Railroads, the second largest employer after agriculture, require large capital investment, which involves significant financial risk. Specialists brought large sums of money into the industry, causing abnormal growth and over-expansion. Jay Cooke’s firm, like many other banking firms, invested a disproportionate share of investors’ funds in railroads, thereby setting the stage for the lawsuit’s failure.
In addition to Cook’s direct investment in railroads, the company became the federal agency for the government to directly finance railroad construction. Because the construction of a new road in areas where the land had not yet been cleared or settled required land grants and loans that only the government could provide, the use of Jay Cook’s company as a vehicle for federal funding worsened the impact of Cook’s bankruptcy on the nation’s economy. . .
As a result of the panic of 1873, a sharp dispute broke out between workers and enterprise managers. Immigration from Europe increased, as did the migration of rural workers to cities, increasing competition for jobs and allowing companies to lower wages and lay off workers easily. In 1877, a 10 percent cut in wages, mistrust of capitalists, and poor working conditions led to several railroad strikes that brought trains to a standstill, leading to a spiraling effect in other parts of the economy. Stunned by the violence, workers continued to organize in an effort to improve their conditions. Management worked to crush these movements, and much of society feared labor organizing as a sign of revolutionary socialism. The fairs lasted even after the depression of 1878–79.
Many of the new immigrant workers were Catholics, whose church had forbidden secret societies since 1743, partly as a reaction against the Catholicism of Freemasonry. But by the end of the 19th century, the Knights of Labor, a national and mostly European and Catholic group, had 700,000 members trying to capture all workers. In 1888, Archbishop James Cardinal Gibbons of Baltimore sympathized with the workers and worked with other bishops to lift the ban on workers joining the KOL. Other workers also took action, and riots marked the following decades. In 1886, Samuel Gompers founded the American Federation of Skilled Trades, recruiting skilled workers from other organizations. Then there was another organization of work.
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The Sixth Regiment of the Maryland National Guard makes its way west on the main commercial thoroughfare at downtown Baltimore Street through Baltimore, Maryland on July 20, 1877.
The railroad strike began in Martinsburg, West Virginia, at the Baltimore & Ohio Railroad (B&O) station on July 16, 1877. This was caused by a 10 percent cut in wages, which caused workers to decide not to take the train. to leave the station until the pay cuts are reversed. The police had to take control after a crowd gathered to support the railway workers. It was not possible to break this mob, so the governor of West Virginia, Gray M. Matthews, took a militia force. But his forces were still unable to stop about 600 trains that were stuck at the B&O station because of the crowd. There are also many militiamen of the Government. st are also railway workers and support the strike. Mathews called on federal troops to aid in this strike, and on July 20 the trains were finally able to leave Martinsburg.
Meanwhile, the strike also spread into western Maryland to the major railroad hub of Cumberland, the county seat of Allegany County, where railroad workers halted freight and passenger service.
In Baltimore, the Fifth (“Dandy Fifth”) and Sixth Regiments of the old State Militia, reorganized after the Civil War into the Maryland National Guard, were called out by Maryland Governor John Lee Carroll at the request of B. & the mighty mighty. O. President John Garrett Works. The 5th marched up North Howard Street from its armory above the old Richmond Market (at North Howard and West Reed Streets) in the Mount Vernon Belvedere area and met virtually no opposition as it headed south toward General B&O Headquarters . Main Depot at Camd Street Station to catch trains waiting westbound to Hagerstown and Cumberland. The Sixth assembled at its armory at East Fayette and North Front streets (next to the old Phoix Shot Tower) in the Old Town/Johnstown area and went to the Comd. She was forced to go west because of Baltimore’s noisy citizens, rioters and striking workers. The procession descended into bloodshed on Baltimore Street, the main commercial thoroughfare in the center of the city, on its way to Camd. It was a horrific scene reminiscent of the worst of the bloody “Pratt Street Riots” during the Civil War in April 1861, more than 15 years earlier. When the larger soldiers of the 6th Regiment finally opened fire on the attacking crowd, they killed 10 civilians and wounded 25.
Great Railroad Strike Of 1877
The rioters wounded several members of the National Guard, damaged B. & O. locomotives and cars, and burned parts of the railroad yard at South Howard and West Camd streets.
The National Guard was trapped in Camd Yards under siege by armed rioters until July 21–22, when President Rutherford B. Hayes sent federal forces and US Marines to Baltimore to restore order.
There were also strikes further north in Albany, Syracuse, and Buffalo, New York, on other railroad lines. On July 25, 1877, workers gathered at the Van Voert Street railroad crossing in Albany, New York. The workers were waiting for the train to arrive and began to block the train with shells. When the police arrived, people woke up and threw fire at the police. The second night continued with shelling of the railway. After two in the morning, the mayor disbanded the militia and ordered the local police to guard the railway.
They were still attacked by urban workers in industry and on the railroads because of the way they cut through cities and dominated urban life. The remaining economic power of the railroads was expressed in physical attacks on them at a time when the wages of many workers were reduced. Protesters “included representatives of various classes from other workplaces, small businesses and commercial establishments. Some of the protesters were in solidarity with the strikers, but many others expressed militant displeasure with the dangerous rail traffic that passes through urban towns in the area.’
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The place was Pittsburgh, Pennsylvania
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