What Statement Would Be True Concerning Synthetic Slings

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What Statement Would Be True Concerning Synthetic Slings

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By Savin Dorin Ionesi 1, * , Luminita Ciobanu 1, * , Catalin Dumitras 2 , Manuela Avadanei 1 , Ionut Dulgheriu 1 , Irina Ionescu 1 and Maria Carmen Loghin 1, *

Faculty of Industrial Design and Business Management, “Gheorghe Asachi” Technical University of Iasi, Blvd. Mangeron, no. 29, 700050 Iasi, Romania

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Faculty of Machine Manufacturing and Industrial Management, “Gheorghe Assachi” Technical University of Iasi, Blvd. Mangeron, no. 59, 700050 Iasi, Romania

Received: November 5, 2021 / Revised: November 27, 2021 / Accepted: November 28, 2021 / Published: December 2, 2021

Composite materials reinforced with textile fabrics represent a complex material. When describing these materials, their mechanical behavior in general and impact resistance in particular must be considered, as many applications are characterized by dynamic loads. Impact properties must be considered from the earliest stages of the design process to be governed by structure, layer deposition and orientation. Reinforcement materials are critical to the quality and behavior of composite materials, and textile reinforcements offer a wide range of benefits. Accurate design of textile reinforcements requires a good understanding of application-specific requirements. Currently, simulations of textile reinforcements and composites are effective tools to predict their behavior during both processing and use. The paper presents the steps to be followed to model the impact behavior of composite materials using finite element analysis (FEM). A FEM model built using Deform 3D software provides information on shape behavior under impact. Behavior is visualized for the entire structure and considered significant for different sections. Furthermore, the load on the structure can be visualized at any time. In real impact tests, the time interval is very short and it is impossible to record inside the structure and it is not possible to record all the important steps by conventional means.

The mechanical properties of textile reinforced composites are essential in applications characterized by high stress levels, and assessment of their in-use behavior is crucial for the design phase and ensures quality. The complexity of textile structures and geometries, their anisotropy and discontinuous nature make the process of modeling mechanical behavior extremely difficult.

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In terms of approximation, applied mathematics is used to define boundary conditions when solving continuum mechanics. The scientific literature consists of applied physics studies aimed at solving similar problems, but aimed at obtaining continuous functions based on approximate regions. Aerospace engineering research focuses on finding appropriate ways to express the effect of stiffness coefficients. All these results can be summarized in three different approaches and solutions, each expressing a different view of the same problem, namely modeling the behavior of composite materials.

The term finite element method (FEM) defines a wide range of calculation methods that share certain common characteristics. Today, with the widespread use of computers and the development of a large selection of analytical software such as ANSYS, Algor or Deform 3D, the main disadvantages of application difficulties have been eliminated.

In the textile domain, modeling using the finite element method has experienced rapid growth in the last decade, with many models predicting the mechanical behavior of composite materials with woven reinforcement [1, 2, 3, 4, 5].

Although they have low mechanical resistance, woven fabrics are widely used for composite reinforcement. The complexity of their specific geometry and the large number of structural possibilities, as well as the direct effect of the mechanical loads introduced during knitting at the yarn level, led to the creation of different geometric and mechanical models for knitted fabrics, each on different basis. Prerequisites and production conditions as well as the micro, meso or macro level of substances are taken into account. Mechanical models of knitted fabrics can be divided into models based on energy analysis, models based on energy minimization and FEM models [6].

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The situation is more complicated in the case of knitted fabrics constructed along three axes, so-called 3D knitted fabrics, because it is necessary to design not only the fabric structure, but also the 3D geometry of the fabric in question. Its peculiarities in the connection between stitches.

It consists of weft/warp woven spacers, consisting of (at least) two independent layers connected by yarn or woven layers [7, 8]. Bonding with yarns limits the spatial geometry of 3D fabrics, but is widely used in technical applications, especially as warp-knitted fabrics. A wide range of options provides the flexibility of weft knitted spacers with connections through knitted layers [9, 10, 11, 12]. Such capabilities are beneficial for developing preforms for composite materials with the final shape of the product.

In the literature, there are few FEM models for the mechanical behavior of knitted fabrics, mainly due to the complexity of the yarn geometry in the seams and the large number of factors that affect their properties.

All FEM models are generally based on geometric models developed for knitted fabrics, including [13] or considering the specific properties of high-performance fibers, a comprehensive review of knitted fabrics for composite reinforcement is performed [14, 15, 16]. These patterns are primarily for 2D knit fabrics. However, a literature survey shows a limited number of models dealing with the mechanical behavior of warp woven spacers, exemplified by [17, 18, 19], as well as weft woven spacers [20, 21]. The model proposed by Hamidi [21] simulates the bending behavior of constant width weft knitted spacers (connected by knitted layers) taking into account the geometric peculiarities proposed by Vassiliadis [22].

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This paper presents another approach to modeling the mechanical behavior of composite materials reinforced with weft woven spacers by replacing the composite with an equivalent continuous material with similar mechanical properties. The advantage of such equivalence is given by the elimination of numerical models of the woven structure with all their limitations and restrictions. Furthermore, an equally continuous material can be easily positioned to form the specific geometry required. It is an innovative approach to modeling composites reinforced with woven fabrics that facilitates behavioral simulation. The procedure for determining the properties of a continuous material corresponding to the properties of a real compound requires careful consideration.

The equivalent model proposed in the paper deals with the low-velocity impact behavior of composite material reinforced with woven spacers with predetermined geometry (distance between connecting layers and distance between independent layers). The proposed model is described and used to predict the impact behavior. Validation is performed based on experimental results to see the level of consistency provided by the model.

The knitted reinforcement chosen for this study is a sandwich fabric in which independent outer layers (plain jersey) are connected to woven layers placed perpendicular to them. The distance between connecting layers is 10 mm. The patterns are designed with or without interlaced yarns in the outer layers (the yarns are placed horizontally across the fabric instead of being sewn). Reinforcement yarn is an effective way to increase the strength of the fabric. Figure 1 shows a textile reinforced composite product, starting with the weave of the reinforcement.

The 3D knitted fabric variants were produced on a STOLL CMS 320 TC flat knitting machine, Reutlingen, Germany, gauge 10E. Fabrics were made of para-aramid (Steel Kevlar and Twaran, DuPont, Wilmington, DE, USA) and technical natural yarn (linen). The use of natural fibers was designed without affecting the performance of the spacer fabrics and aimed to increase stability. Different raw materials were used to make the outer and connecting layers, as shown in Table 1. The volume fraction of composite samples required to increase the compactness of the fabric was achieved by introducing transverse taran yarns.

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The 3D composites investigated in this paper were fabricated using

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