What Is The Self-reference Effect

What Is The Self-reference Effect – “Who or what are you?” Calculate how much has to do with unique characteristics about you Independent self-construal (e.g. shy, creative, talented, playful) Calculate how much has to do with your relationship with other people Connected self-construal (e.g. mother, friend, conservative, Catholic)

Values ​​uniqueness, individual achievement Interrelated self-construal Things that connect self to group Values ​​of commitment, conformity, group cohesion

What Is The Self-reference Effect

Play Social Roles Society creates and defines roles How does your behavior change when you interact with a professor, co-worker, parent or friend?

Social Psychology Psy450 Instructor: Briana (seay) Harvey

Self-directed attention Private self-awareness Feelings, thoughts, desires Introspection Public self-awareness Appearance, reputation, dominance Social comparison

Social comparison (self-evaluation) In situations where self-concept is threatened: We minimize comparison We avoid upward comparison We try to improve ourselves by downward comparison.

Evaluating how we stack up against others who are more talented or luckier than ourselves. Good: Makes you strive to improve yourself Bad: Develops low self-esteem

Faced with a threat to self-concept, people may prefer to compare themselves with others they perceive to be “worse” than themselves. Good: maintain self-esteem and reduce anxiety Bad: try to improve yourself

Long Term Memory Introduction Encoding In Long Term Memory

Standards: Ideas about how things could be Ideals, norms, expectations, moral principles, laws, past experiences Around 2 years begins to use standards Beginning of self-awareness Good, Bad, Beautiful, etc.

Self-awareness and behavior Improves behavior Mirror testing: reduced cheating (Diener & Wallbom, 1976) Makes people more socially attractive

Figure 3.2 The self-awareness theory proposed by Duval and Wicklund (1972) suggests that certain situations, such as looking in a mirror, lead to self-awareness. Self-confident people feel bad when they notice any discrepancies between who they are and the standards. It can “shape” behavior by conforming it to a standard, or it can be “sent” by trying to escape from a state of self-awareness.

When self-awareness feels bad – try to avoid it Drinking alcohol – removing inhibitions Suicide – extreme escape

Solved B) 27. Many Of The Experimental Participants Who Were

You imagine how you appear to others, you imagine how others will judge you, you develop an emotional response as a result of imagining how others will judge you.

People respond to feedback from others They may not know how people perceive them People are reluctant to express negative comments People may not be receptive to negative comments

Thinking about your own thoughts…. Limitation of introspection Not fully developed until age 11 We may know what we think and feel, but we don’t know why Example: Sexy girl in car commercial

People observe their own behavior to understand what they think and how they feel.

Attention Bias In Rumination And Depression: Cognitive Mechanisms And Brain Networks

Internal motivation Wanting to do an activity for yourself, i.e. painting for pleasure External motivation Doing an activity for a reward, i.e. painting for money

Do not want to fail Focus on self-preservation Avoid failure and rejection to prevent loss of self-esteem More prone to emotional swings

Positive illusion Exaggeration of good qualities Underestimation of faults Exaggeration of control over events Unrealistic optimism Conclusion: People want to believe good things about themselves

Self-serving bias Demands praise for success and rejects blame for failure More skeptical of bad feedback Pays attention only to good feedback Comparison with slightly worse, i.e., downward comparison

Cognition In Psychology: Definition, Types, Effects, And Tips

Sociometer Theory Self-esteem is a measure of social acceptability. How attractive we are to other people. Self-Esteem Feels Good Terror Coping Theory Protect Yourself in a Terrible Situation “It’s okay, I’m strong and smart – I can handle the thief!”

Narcissism Excessive self-love and selfish orientation Being more aggressive and violent Difficulty maintaining romantic relationships Interference Confidence that you can do the right thing More risky/adventurous in activities

That is, the interpersonal self or mirror self Behavior can vary depending on who is present. In one study, women behaved less intelligently if they believed that an attractive man preferred unintelligent women.

Parent-child relationships: Demonstrating acceptance, compassion, interest and participation in children’s daily lives Establishing clear boundaries for children’s behavior in a strict and consistent manner, Giving children freedom and respecting initiatives within these limits, encouraging non-coercive forms of discipline, refusing privilege and discussing their reasons than corporal punishment

Pdf) Affective Valence And The Self Reference Effect: Influence Of Retrieval Conditions

Performance Feedback Daily feedback about the quality of our performance affects our self-esteem. Social Comparison In order to interpret whether a performance represents success or failure, we must compare our results with our own goals and the goals and expectations of others. Down or Up

Extraordinary self (working self-concept) Self-image currently active in a person’s thoughts Current self-concept Extraordinary aspects about you stand out Being a lone member of certain categories (gender, race, disability, etc.) increases self-awareness. It may degrade performance

Kevin lives in Canada and loves hockey. Self-concept is strongly associated with “I’m a hockey player”.

Kevin’s family moves to Alabama. Hockey is not that popular. Kevin adjusts his self-concept as follows: “I’m an athlete, I used to play hockey.

The Self Reference Effect On Memory In Early Childhood Sheila J. Cunningham And David J. Turk University Of Aberdeen, Scotland University Of Aberdeen Introduction.

Evaluation Motive Searching for the truth about oneself Requires honesty in abilities Can adjust personal effort when given the truth

Self-improvement motive Seeking flattery about oneself Not seeking the truth They only want to be sure of good qualities

Consistency motive (self-affirmation) Seeking confirmation of existing beliefs about oneself Wanting honesty in something you already believe Wanting to make sure it’s good and bad

Why would anyone put their photo on “HotorNot.com”? Evaluation motive Seeking truth about oneself Self-improvement motive Seeking flattery about oneself Consistency motive Seeking confirmation of current self-beliefs

What Is The Self Reference Effect?

The most helpful and correct one should win!! Evaluation motive Weakest motive Self-enhancement motive Strongest motive (emotional appeal) Consistency motive Second preference (cognitive appeal)

46 Self-sabotage Self-sabotage: Avoiding effort in hopes of preventing a possible failure that damages self-esteem.

Making a task more difficult due to fear of failure If they do fail, they may blame themselves rather than themselves EXAMPLES: drinking alcohol, choosing unattainable goals, refusing to work

Finding reasons for possible failure If they fail at a task, they may make excuses as the reason for their failure EXAMPLES: say you are experiencing various physical and psychological symptoms

Write Down The Names Of The Seven Dwarves

Self-reference effect Individuals tend to have better memory for information about themselves compared to material with less personal interest.

Researchers presented a list of words (eg, friendly) and asked each word one of four questions (Rogers, Kuiper, & Kirker, 1977): • Is it a long word? • Is it a rhyming word? • Is it a meaningful word? • Does it describe you? Participants were then asked to remember as many words as possible.

In order for this website to function, we log user data and share it with processors. To use this website, you must accept our privacy policy, including our cookie policy. If information relates to our self-concepts, we process it quickly and remember it well. – We see ourselves standing in the center of attention

Anticipating Our Emotions Self-Analysis – Dual Attitudes (Implicit and Explicit) – The mental processes that govern our social behavior are different from the mental processes that explain our behavior.

Pdf) The Self Reference Effect On Episodic Memory Recollection In Young And Older Adults And Alzheimer’s Disease

10 Self-Knowledge Exploring the limits of our own knowledge has two practical implications: Self-reports are often unreliable Honesty is no guarantee of validity

11 Self-purpose Most of us evaluate ourselves positively. Even people with low self-esteem respond to phrases like “I have good ideas.” With a qualifying adjective like “sometimes”. Self-serving bias is one of the best-established findings of social psychology.

13. Athletes attribute victories to their abilities, defeats to bad timeouts, bad calls by the referees, extraordinary efforts of the other team, etc. they bond. In their insurance forms, car drivers describe their accidents with these words: “Suddenly an invisible car came into me and hit me. car and disappeared.” “When I got to the intersection there was a fence blocking my view and I couldn’t see the other car.” “A pedestrian hit me and got under my car.

14. Ross and Sicoly found that young Canadian married couples often claim more credit for house cleaning and child care than their husbands give them. Fiebert: Husbands estimate that they do more housework than their wives. Wives estimate that they do twice as much housework as their husbands. Gray and Silver: Most divorced people blame their spouse for the breakup and see themselves as victims rather than mistakes.

Strategies Of The Memory

Managers often attribute the poor performance of their unit to the incompetence of employees, workers are more likely to attribute the poor performance of the unit to insufficient materials, excessive workload, difficult co-workers, uncertain tasks. Impression Management!!

After achieving a good score on the test, successful students will receive personal credit. They say the exam is a valid measure of their abilities. Those who criticize the exam badly.

Most of us consider ourselves better than average. (This is, of course, statistically impossible; only half of us can be “above average”.) Most entrepreneurs consider themselves more ethical than the average entrepreneur. · 90% of all managers rate their performance as better than their colleagues. · 86% of people in Australia rate their work performance as above average.

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