What Is The Prefix For The Host Address 2001:db8:bc15:a:12ab::1/64 – This post is a high level overview of IPv6 addresses. For an excellent overview of IPv6, I highly recommend reading the Cisco Press book by Rick Graziani:
, Second Edition. This is an excellent read and Rick is an amazing writer. I am also very lucky to call him a friend.
What Is The Prefix For The Host Address 2001:db8:bc15:a:12ab::1/64
When IPv4 became the standard in 1980, the 32-bit address field created a theoretical maximum of about 4.29 billion addresses (2).
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). IPv4 was originally designed as an experiment, not a practical implementation, so 4.29 billion was considered an inexhaustible amount. But as the Internet grows, and people and businesses need multiple addresses—your home computer, cell phone, tablet, office/school computer, and Internet-aware devices—you can see that something big is coming. An address field greater than 32 bits is required. In 1993, the Internet Engineering Task Force (IETF) created a working group called the Next Generation IP Working Group. In 1994 the IETF recommended an address size of 128 bits. Although many people think that IPv6 is just a way to create more addresses, there are actually many improvements that make IPv6 an excellent alternative to IPv4. Again, I recommend Brick Graziani
The way a computer or other digital device sees an IPv6 address is different from the way people see an IPv6 address. The digital device displays an IPv6 address as a 128-bit number. But humans have devised a way to convert these 128-bit numbers into something easier to see and work with. To humans, an IPv6 address is a 128-bit number written as a string of hexadecimal numbers. Hexadecimal is a natural fit for IPv6 addresses because any 4 bits can be represented as a single hexadecimal number. Two hexadecimal digits represent one byte, or octet (8 bits). IPv6 is the preferred form of addressing
This is a 16-bit segment that can be represented using four hexadecimal digits. Each segment is separated by a colon (:), as opposed to IPv4 addressing, which uses a period (.) to separate each segment. The result is eight 16-bit segments (sometimes called
Displaying all hexadecimal digits in an IPv6 address is the longest representation of the preferred format. The next section shows you two rules for reducing IPv6 address encryption.
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If you need more training with hexadecimal and converting to hexadecimal, decimal, and binary, refer to both Appendix A, “How to Calculate in Decimal, Binary, and Hexadecimal,” and Appendix B, “How to Convert Between Number Systems.”
Skip any leading zero in any hex array (16-bit segment). This rule only applies to leading zeros, not trailing zeros. Table 5-1 shows examples of omitting leading zeros in the hexadecimal case:
Use a colon (::) to represent any single contiguous string of two or more hexadecimal groups containing all 0’s. Examples of using a double colon are shown in Table 5-2.
Table 5-2 Examples of deleting one contiguous string from all 0s hextets (0s are replaced by a double colon in bold)
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Only one contiguous string of all 0’s can be represented by a double colon; Otherwise, the address will be ambiguous. Consider the following example:
If you have an address with more than one consecutive string of zeros, where should the double colon be placed? RFC 5952 states that a colon must represent a colon
You can combine two rules to narrow the title even further. Table 3-5 shows examples of this.
In IPv4, the prefix (network part) of an address can be represented either by a decimal point netmask (subnet mask) or by CIDR notation. When we see 192.168.100.0 255.255.255.0 or 192.168.100.0/24 , we know that the network part of the address is the first 24 bits of the address (192.168.100) and the last 8 bits are the host(s) prefixes of IPv6 addresses in CIDR notation like IPv4 addresses. Prefixes are represented the same way they are written. IPv6 prefixes are represented using the following format:
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The leftmost part of the address contains a decimal value indicating the number of contiguous bits. Specifies the prefix (network part) of the address. In unicast addresses, it is used to separate the prefix part from the interface identifier. The interface identifier is equivalent to the host portion of an IPv4 address.
We know that the leftmost 64 bits are the prefix (the network part) and the remaining bits are the interface identifier (the host part). See Figure 5-2.
The length of the A/64 prefix results in a 64-bit interface identifier. This is a common prefix length for most end user networks. The length of the prefix A/64 gives us 2
As shown in Figure 5-3, there are several common examples of prefix length. All of these examples lie on either a hex boundary or a glib boundary (4-bit multiple). Although the length of the prefix need not fall within the nibble bounds, it often does.
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In IPv6, there are three types of addresses: unicast, multicast, and any broadcast. This section provides a (very) high-level overview of these types.
IPv6 does not contain a broadcast address. There are other options found in IPv6 that address this problem, but that is beyond the scope of this book.
A unicast address uniquely identifies an interface on an IPv6 device. A packet sent to a unicast address is received by the interface assigned to that address, as with IPv4, the source IPv6 address must be a unicast address.
Global unicast addresses (GUAs) are globally routable and accessible in the IPv6 Internet. The general structure of the GUA consists of three areas:
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A link-local unicast address is a unicast address limited to a single link (single subnet). Link-local addresses must be unique only on the link (subnet) and not unique across the link. Therefore, routers do not forward packets with link-local addresses.
Figure 5-6 shows the local unicast address format, which is in the range fe80::/10. With this prefix and prefix length range, the first hex ranges from fe80 to febf.
RFC 4291 allows the use of prefixes other than fe80, but addresses must be verified before use.
To be an IPv6-capable device, the device must have an IPv6 link-local address. You don’t need to have a global IPv6 unicast address, but you do need a link-local address.
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Link-local addresses must be unique only across links. It is entirely possible, and even desirable, to have the same link-local address on different interfaces on different links. For example, on a machine called Router2, you can manually configure all link-local interfaces to FE80::2, while on Router3 all link-local interfaces are manually configured to FE80::3, and so on.
There can only be one link-local address per interface. There can be multiple global uni-addresses per interface.
IPv6 loopback address::1 is the address of all 0s except for the last bit, which is set to 1. It is equivalent to the IPv4 address block 127.0.0.0/8, and the loopback address is often 127.0.0.1. The loopback address can be used by the node to send IPv6 packets to itself, especially when testing the TCP/IP stack.
An undefined unicast address is the address of all 0 (see Table 5-5), used as a source address to indicate that there is no address.
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Figure 5-7 shows the structure of the unique local address (ULA), which is the counterpart to private IPv4 addresses. ULAs are used in the same way as public unicast addresses, but they are for private use and cannot be routed across the global Internet. ULA is defined in RFC 4193.
Figure 8-5 illustrates the structure of built-in IPv4 addresses. They are used to help transition from IPv4 to IPv6. Built-in IPv4 addresses contain an IPv4 address in the 32-bit lower order of an IPv6 address.
It is a transitional technology for the transition from IPv4 to IPv6 addressing. It should not be used as a permanent solution. The end goal should always be a genuine end-to-end IPv6 connection.
Multicasting is a technology in which a device sends a packet to multiple destinations simultaneously (one-to-manycast). Multiple destinations can actually be multiple interfaces on the same machine, but they are usually different devices.
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An IPv6 multicast address identifies a group of devices known as a multicast group. IPv6 addresses use the prefix ff00::/8, which is equivalent to the IPv4 multicast address 18.104.22.168/4. Packets sent to a multicast group always contain a unicast source address; A multicast address cannot be a source address.
The IPv6 multicast structure is shown in Figure 5-9; The first 8 bits are 1 bit (ff) followed by 4 bits for flags and a 4-bit range field. The next 112 bits represent the group identifier.
Well-known multicast addresses contain the prefix ff00::/12. Well-known multicast addresses are multicast addresses that are reserved for predefined or specific groups of devices. These addresses are equivalent to well-known IPv4 multicast addresses in the range 22.214.171.124 to 126.96.36.199. Some examples of well-known multicast addresses in IPv6 include:
The multicast addresses of the requested node are used as more efficient
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