What Is The Mita System – During the short reign of the Inca Empire, from 1438 to 1533, the Inca civilization created an economic structure that allowed large-scale agricultural production as well as the exchange of public products. The Inca nation is considered to have had some of the most successful and well-organized economies in history.
Its effect was achieved through effective management of workers and management of revenue sources. In the Inca society, collective labor was the basis of economic production and collective prosperity.
What Is The Mita System
The people of the ayllu (the heart of economic production) worked together to produce that wealth. This success made the Spanish amazed by what they saw when they first faced the Incas in 1528.
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Within each ayllu, work was divided into areas, agriculture being directed to the most productive areas; pottery making, road building, textile production, and other skills were part of the ajlus.
After meeting the needs of the area, the government collected all the remains collected by Ayllus and distributed them where they were needed. The people of the Inca Empire were given free clothes, food, health care and education in order to get their work.
The economy of the Inca Empire depended on these aylus. Ajlusi consists of families who lived in the same city or village. People born into the ayllu marry within the ayllu, which provides social stability. Depending on its location, each aylu is specialized in the development of suitable properties. Agricultural sites were found near fertile fields and crops were grown that suited the type of soil. Their proposal would be taken by the government, which would transfer it to other parts of the country where the source was not available. Residues will be stored in warehouses near urban areas, along roads and highways.
Some Ayllus would specialize in producing pottery, clothing, or jewelry; skills were passed down from generation to generation in the same ayllu. An ayllus made almost everything necessary for daily life, which the state would provide to another ayllus. The abundance and variety of money, as well as their availability during bad harvests and conflicts, made the people of the Inca kingdom loyal to the Sapa Incas and the local government.
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Individuals as representatives of the ayllu had the freedom to use property. As a representative of the ayllu, Curaka (Quechua for chief provincial governor or municipal authority Tawantinsuyu or curaca (Spanish spelling) was an official of the Inca Empire who served as a magistrate, so that about four ranks below Sapa Inca, head of the Empire) redistributed property between members according to the size of their community. Land measurements were calculated in tupus, a measure of the area of the measurement area, and varied depending on the level of agriculture. The couple will get one and a half tupus, and each male child should have one and a half tupus for each female child. any extra tupu was sent to the new family where the boy or girl started their family. Each family worked the land, but it was not their own; The Inca property was its rightful owner. The farm was used to provide the family with food for survival.
The Incas did an average count of the number of men to determine if hiring was necessary. Individuals, including young people, were forced to work in different jobs in turn, be it livestock, buildings or houses. The government took two-thirds of the farmer’s crops (more than 20 types of corn and 240 types of potatoes).
The Inca state received its “tribute” money from such work. In return, the community provided them with shelter, food and clothing in exchange for their work. Free distribution of festive beer was one of the special incentives. The Inca office used a unique landmark in the center of the city as a social gathering place for people to celebrate and drink traditional beer.
Joint work can be organized in three ways: The first was to help a member of the community in need. Ayni can be seen helping to build a house or helping a disabled member of the community. The second was the minka, or joint effort for the good of the whole community. Building timber and washing irrigation canals are two examples of minka. The mita, or tax levied by the Incas, was the third. Mita’s workers were warriors, fishermen, messengers, road builders and whatever else was needed. Each participant in the ayllu was expected to fulfill a rotating and temporary service. They built temples and palaces, irrigation canals, agricultural terraces, highways, bridges and tunnels, all without the use of a wheel. This structure was a give and take that was well balanced. The government will be provided with food, clothing and medicine. This plan required the Inca government to have all the necessary production for redistribution according to local needs and interests.
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A well-preserved example of a quipu from the Inca Empire is currently on display at the Larco Museum.
Despite the lack of a written language, the Incas developed a record keeping system made of wavy strings known as the quipu. To describe the decimal system, these node structures used a complex arrangement of nodes and colored elements. These cords were used to keep track of their stored goods, available labor, and valuables such as corn, which was used to brew ceremonial beer.
The quipu controlled every aspect of the empire’s economy. “Quipucamayocs” or in other words “Incan accountants” were responsible for keeping the documents of the quipu.
There are 1,500 wires in the largest quipu. The Holy City of Caral Supe has the oldest quipu, dating back to around 2500 BC.
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A part of the country can be controlled by any seemingly large family. Planting, planting seeds and later harvesting crops, everyone needed additional work from family members. A similar technique known as “minka” was used for large scale work, such as building houses or other facilities. Participants were compensated in some way. This method is still used in some Quechua cultures in the Andes mountains. The principle of metaphysical belief that supported “ayllu” and “minka” was known as “ayni”, the ancient Andean concept of harmony and harmony.
Because everyone and everything in society was interconnected, each member voluntarily contributed to his work and productivity. Expecting to be given something in return later. In a world without financial capital, the concept of “ayni” can be applied to all transfers of energy and goods between people and nature. In addition, the Inca government established a supply control and tax structure. As a tax, each citizen was forced to give the Inca rulers time to work and a portion of their cultivated crops. As a result, the remaining crops were taken by the government and distributed to villages in dire need of food.
The Incas were master builders, building the most complex network of roads and bridges of any ancient civilization, known as the Qhapaq Ñan. The ability to touch and monitor every area of their territory contributed to the success of that government. The Incas improved the main roads of the first cultures, such as those built by Machimu, Wari and Tiwanaku, among others. In some of the most difficult places in the world, the Incas built more than 18,600/30,000 kilometers of paved roads.
Since 1994, UNESCO World Heritage sites have preserved these roads and all the Inca and pre-Inca buildings around them. There were two main roads running from north to south, one along the coast and the other along the Andes. A small network of roads connected the two routes. They built a 3,000/4,830 kilometer coastal road connecting the Gulf of Guayaquil in Ecuador with the Maule River in Chile to the south. The royal road of the Andes, built in the highlands, ran the length of the Andes mountains. It started in Quito, Ecuador and approached Tucuman, Argentina, after passing through Cajamarca and Cusco. The Royal Road of the Andes was more than 3,500 kilometers long, more than the length of Rome’s longest road.
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Since the Incas did not have horses and wheeled technology for most of their history, most travel was done on foot, with lamas transporting goods from one part of the empire to another. to another. Messengers or shasquis used the roads to carry messages throughout the kingdom. The Incas devised strategies for navigating the rugged Andes. Some roads went through high mountains. They made stone steps that looked like giant stairs going up the slopes. Low walls were built in desert areas to prevent sand from flowing onto the roads.
Bridges were built throughout the Inca empire, connecting roads that crossed rivers and deep canyons in some of the most difficult places in the world. The structure and economy of the Inca empire required the construction of these bridges. Natural fibers were used by the Incas to build impressive hanging bridges or rope bridges.
These strings were tied together to make a rope as long as the bridge required
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