What Is A Isoline Map

What Is A Isoline Map – Thematic maps cover various map solutions and include choropla, proportional markers, isolines, point density, dasymetric and flow maps, as well as cartograms, among others. Each type of thematic map requires different data processing methods and uses different visual variables, resulting in continuous or solid and smooth or sharp representations. As a result, each solution emphasizes different aspects of the map phenomenon and presents the message in a different way to the map reader. A thematic map is a tool for understanding spatial patterns, and the choice of map type should support this understanding. Therefore, the purpose of the map and the nature of the spatial pattern are the main considerations when choosing the type of thematic map.

This article examines the common types of maps, describes the variables found in them, and examines the design considerations for each type of map, including legends. It also provides an overview of the strengths and limitations of each type of thematic map.

What Is A Isoline Map

This topic can be found in: DiBiase, D., DeMers, M., Johnson, A., Kemp, K., Luck, A. T., Plewe, B., and Wentz, E. (2006). Basic mapping methods.

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We thank Robert Roth for the invitation, as well as for his support and guidance. This work was funded by the National Science Center, Poland, grant number UMO-2016/23/B/HS6/03846.

Dasymetric map: A thematic map that uses additional data to define the new boundaries of the census units to improve the representation of the cross-section in the listed cases.

Point density map: A thematic map that plots points corresponding to the values ​​shown in the count group to preserve the density distribution and variability of incidence.

Flow Map: A hierarchical map that shows the direction and/or extent of a phenomenon with linear or spatial features.

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Balanced scale chart: A schematic chart that balances the size of the scale with the displayed value

Additional isolines are lines placed between isolines formed at regular isolated intervals to provide a small but significant sample of map phenomena that cannot be represented at regular intervals.

A thematic map shows the spatial distribution of one or more geographic phenomena. In a topic map, the main concept is clearly visible behind the base map, before the visual hierarchy diagram (see Visual Hierarchy and Layout). In contrast, reference maps are often not a well-distinguished subject of map layers and map elements. This article reviews the various types of maps on a common theme; See Multivariate Maps for additional types of maps that display two or more variables.

Thematic maps allow the presentation of qualitative and quantitative data. Many characteristics can be collected at individual points, but are often listed in regional groups (see the statistical map). The types of thematic maps differ in size and perceived variables (Monmonier, 2001; MacEachren, 2004; Slocum et al., 2009; Bertin, 2010; Tyner, 2014). As a result, each thematic map suggests a different way of thinking about the same phenomenon as the map and therefore can lead to different views and conclusions about the presented topic (MacEachren & DiBiase, 1991; Kraak et al. al., 2020) (Figure 1).

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Figure 1. Each type of thematic map provides a different perspective on the mapping phenomenon. Based on: MacEachren & DiBiase (1991). Source: Author.

Each type of thematic map has strengths and limitations, and no one type is better than another. Table 1 shows the design and use of common map types, which are summarized in the next section.

The number of classes and the wrong choice of classification method create the possibility of inadvertently masking important details.

A choropleth map is a thematic map that colors each overlapping element according to the displayed value. Choropleth maps usually take a sequence of colors that change with the color value as the primary variable. ). In addition to the color value, the choropleth map can use the hue and saturation of the color in various spectral schemes and different schemes. Different charts are used to highlight critical values ​​(Figure 3). Gradual or “rainbow” color schemes are often not recommended because of the numerical values ​​shown in choropleth maps (see Color Theory). Choropleth maps represent only listed data, often with listed political boundaries or separate legal forms (Figure 4), with areas colored by name differences (e.g. different land types, terrain types, etc.) are not considered as choropleth maps. .

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Figure 2. Choosing a color order for quantitative data should take into account the contrast of the background color: darker on a light background (left) or lighter on a dark background (right).

Figure 3. The use of matching and dissimilar colors depends on the type of data and the key values ​​in the data. Source: Author.

Figure 4. Enumeration units on a choropleth map can be political boundaries (eg, census tracts (left)) or regular shapes such as hexagons (right). Source: Author.

Choropleth maps use area as the dimension of symbols. The choropleth map pattern has a strong effect on the distribution of inventory units, perhaps more than other thematic maps, due to the uniform use of one marker (color) across the inventory group. Therefore, the absolute characteristics must be statistically compared to the relative values ​​of the choropleth map to account for elements of different sizes and shapes (Dent et al., 2008; Kraak & Ormeling, 2009; Longley et al. , 2015; see Figure 5). . Common forms of running a choropleth map include generating densities, calculating individual ratios, generating cross-sectional or composite indices, and mapping changes in collections. two data sets (see statistical map). Absolute data should not be used unless all mapped regions are of the same size and shape (Figure 4 right).

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Figure 5. Areas of different sizes and their values ​​change the sensitivity of the distribution when using absolute values ​​in the choropleth map. Source: Author.

Choropleth maps usually require data classification (Figure 6) by examining the ordinal level of reading the color value of the visual variables (see statistical maps ; the parameters and Visible Variables). Classification involves deciding on the number of classes (Figure 7) and class breaks. Sorting also reduces the effects of color-based contrast on maps (see color theory).

Figure 7. The level of detail in the choropleth map increases – not because of the change in map parameters, but because of the increase in the number of account groups (from left to right) and the number the class (from top to bottom). Source: Author.

A choropleth map presents continuous and unique activities that are closely related to accounting groups. Because political units are often used as accounting units, choroplast maps consistently represent activities related to government activities (Figure 1; Kraak et al., 2020). Choropleth maps are probably the most commonly used conceptual maps for the representation of statistical data and therefore benefit from their familiarity with a general audience.

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A proportional character map is a thematic map that balances the size of the character points according to the displayed value. Parallel symbolic maps use the magnitude of visual variables—one of the visual variables that can be quantified—and thus provide more reliable estimates of numerical data than other thematic maps (see Symbolization and Visual Variables), although they still require memory. For the perceptual effects of proportional symbol shapes.

Therefore, the scaling ratio is the first consideration in the design of the feature map. The size of the parameter should be large so that the values ​​of the cases can be easily estimated and compared. Proportional characters that increase by one dimension, such as bars, are read reliably. However, the corresponding symbols growing in two dimensions are not normally estimated because they increase in size due to the changes in the area of ​​the symbols and therefore require perceptual scaling. Each shape of the symbol (eg circle, square, triangle) has a different scale ratio, such as the flâneur ratio for the circle; Complex designs are therefore not recommended due to unknown or unexpected extremes. A three-dimensional scale is generally not recommended because of the uncertainty of awareness (Figure 8).

Figure 8. Symbolic definition of dimensions: length of bar (1D), area for squares and other geometric figures (2D), volume for spheres, cubes and other solids (3D). Source: Author.

Color saturation of balanced characters can be uniform or variable (Slocum et al., 2009). The latter can be used to manipulate characteristics similar to font size, or to display secondary data (see multivariate maps; Figure 9).

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Figure 9. Padding can represent the same character size case (left) or represent additional data: structure (middle), additional case (right). Source: Author.

Cross-reference maps can represent individual or tabulated data (Dent et al., 2008). Symbols associated with areas are placed in the middle of the numbering group—for example, state, province; And the markers showing data related to the point are placed on the map in the coordinates of the incident (Figure 10).

Figure 10. Correspondence symbols indicating points and areas are similar to the correspondence symbol map; They differ only in the location of the symbols.

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