What Important Function Do Stream Pools Serve – Salmon is an important component of the indigenous peoples of the northwest coast of North America, many of whom refer to themselves as “salmons”. “Salmon residents” for generations But when the settlers came Their agricultural and urban development devastated the mighty fish. The new settlers cut down the riverside plants, which slowed down and absorbed the rain. cause a flood They straightened the winding stream in an attempt to speed the water away from the land, and protected the banks to prevent erosion. But the faster current eroded the bottom of the river. so they can build more cities on top By cutting off waterways from soil, plants and animals, the cumulative effect of this damage leads to flash floods. Unstable riverbanks, heavy pollution and degradation of life The sacred salmon has disappeared.
Across North America and around the world, cities are trying to push their waterways into surrender. Seattle is just as guilty. until 1999, when the U.S. Department of the Interior declared the salmon as endangered under the Endangered Species Act. This has forced the city to help the salmon with new capital projects that could affect the fish. Engineers trying to improve Seattle’s ailing streams have begun restoring some of the bends. Place rocks and tree trunks. to create more natural habitats but for the most part the Salmon did not return. The flooding remained dangerous as the rain drained from the frozen city into an almost still inflexible channel that was overflowing.
What Important Function Do Stream Pools Serve
In 2004, biologist Kathryn Lynch sat in on another meeting on how to solve these problems. It was organized by her employer, Seattle Public Utilities. Perhaps the restoration project failed because they missed a lesser-known feature that has been damaged by urbanization: the “gut” of the stream.
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Systematic flow This includes not only water flowing between banks. but also earth, life and water around and below. Lynch was engaged in the discovery of wet sediments, small stones and microscopic organisms. Below the stream is known as the Hyporoheic region. which is a Greek term
This has the effect of “flowing” the flow of water over this dynamic layer. mixed with groundwater that rises up Water in the Hyporoheic area flows downstream as surface water above it. But an order of magnitude slower.
For a large river, hyporheic zones can be tens of feet deep and can extend laterally up to a mile beyond the waterline. Helps keep waterways healthy by regulating essential physical, biological and chemical processes. Including aeration in the river, oxygenation in the water, temperature control, pollution removal, and food production. Some biologists compare the hypogeic zone to the human intestine. full of microbiome Others call it the liver of the river.
Healthy hyporheic zones are full of life. Crustaceans, worms and aquatic insects are constantly moving between zones and water surfaces, while nematodes, copepods, rotifers and tardigrades also dig. This leaves room for water to mix underground. Microorganisms spread throughout the territory. Water rising from the bottom carries oxygen to the salmon roe lying in the river. Lynch realized that few people trying to revive Seattle’s streams were thinking about the hypothermic county. Or think that making the streams channelized will get rid of it Or placing the stream in the pipe will cut off the area from the water in the stream above.
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The encounter involved Thornton Creek in Seattle, which originally ran through fertile lowland rainforest. Runoff 11.6 square miles of the basin before emptying into Lake Washington. Builders straightened it and covered it with stone or concrete. Push it into a hole several feet wide in some places. The 15-mile trail runs along a single highway and cuts through hundreds of backyards. Some houses stood so close to the narrow creek that their decks were above the water. Thornton has a reputation as the most degraded creek in the city — and it’s dangerous, with Main Street flooding almost every year. Block access to schools, community centers, hospitals, businesses and bus routes. Sometimes houses and schools on the sides of the stream are also flooded.
Talks at the conference focused on a best practice at the time: restoring a stream with some floodplains by reclaiming adjacent property. remove the armor and reuse native plants along the banks Lynch boldly told the group that the project must go forward: to restore the lost hyporheic zone. This means reclaiming space.
As far as Lynch knows Nobody is trying to create a hyporheic zone, which is lacking in urban streams. She hoped that restoring the creek bed would help Thornton Creek heal better. This reduces the need for constant, expensive human assistance. It will set a new standard for the restoration of urban rivers at a time when global floods regularly claim lives and cause billions of dollars in damage. Cities everywhere seized and flooded thousands of streams. Removed from public memory One study found that Philadelphia buried 73 percent of its streams. Another study estimated 66 percent of those buried in Baltimore. Many streams around the world that are still on the surface are sick or dying. Thornton Creek’s hyporheic restoration could provide a blueprint for increasing biodiversity while reducing urban flooding and drought.
Fellow scientists at the meeting enthusiastically embraced Lynch’s tough proposal. But in subsequent meetings, she quickly encountered a fundamental obstacle among other decision-makers: “People,” she said, “didn’t know what I was talking about.”
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The Hyporoheic region is a lively place with water chemistry, temperature, and life forms that differ from the water in the stream above and the water below. This type of ecosystem is known as an ecotone. This is a limited area where biodiversity can be preserved. After all, organisms from the environment live there together. including microorganisms and other living things that live only in this area
Microscopic organisms in the Hyporoheic region act as ecosystem engineers. metabolize inorganic compounds as food for plants and insects They move organic matter and nutrients between zones and river sediments. and plays an important role in the nitrogen, phosphorus and carbon cycles. Bringing cooler ground water in summer and warmer ground water in winter.
Scientists have shown how wide and deep the hyporheic zone can reach by mapping the aquatic insects and fish larvae found in the soil near waterways. For an urban creek like Thornton, this lateral access can extend 30 feet from the ravine. The depth may be three feet below the creek.
Straightening rivers and building over floodplains can destroy the Hippareia region. This also creates a problem: rain that falls on sidewalks and roofs cannot seep into the soil and instead runs off these hard surfaces. Collects dirt and pollutants that flow into the stream. These flows, which ecologists call “sparkling,” create the effect of fire hoses eroding riverbeds and abnormally wet material that has flowed down over the centuries. Under water, where water cannot pass, such as shale or granite. and straight armored channels are often unable to contain sewage. Floodwaters inundated the area
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Blooming lowlands absorb possible floods. They also slow down the water. distribute energy and reduce erosion Slow water sinks more easily. Some will eventually return to flow through the hypogea. which supplies water during dry times Natural streams with consistently low temperatures have a more balanced flow between winter and summer. Help keep the water in the creek year-round. even in arid areas
All these processes allow the threads to recover. If the hyporhea is removed, the biological bowels of the stream will disappear. and the waterway had little hope of remaining in good health. This is similar to when people experience severe digestive problems due to a problem with their gut microbiome.
Lynch first learned about Hyporoheic in 2000 at the University of Washington. But she didn’t appreciate how vast the area was until a 2004 field trip with geomorphologist and teacher Tim Eby, where they blocked off the cold zone for nearby streams. “I was looking at plants and ferns,” she recalls, “how could this be?”
Born and raised in Nova Scotia. Lynch moved to the Pacific Northwest of the United States. and ended up working for Seattle Public Utilities, focusing on stream restoration. Two long stretches of Thornton Creek were slated for revitalization and discussed at the 2004 conference, known as the Convergence and the Kingfisher. Their total length is 1,600 feet. The team chose these ridges because they were originally floodplains. And overflow water greatly reduces the problem of flooding along the longer course of the stream. The Seattle Parks Department has bought out willing homeowners whose homes were flooded along those lines — five at the confluence and six at Kingfisher — so some of the stolen creek space can be restored.
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Lynch knows that decision makers are trying new things. what is difficult Restoring the city’s flow is expensive and the stakes are high – to ensure that people’s property does not flood. By 2007, after much debate, the project
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