What Entities Encompass Non-traditional Collectors

What Entities Encompass Non-traditional Collectors – A comparative study of the urban space characteristics of the capital cities of the Tang and Song dynasties based on spatial syntax

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What Entities Encompass Non-traditional Collectors

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Received: February 21, 2021 / Revised: March 31, 2021 / Accepted: April 9, 2021 / Published: April 12, 2021

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This paper analyzes the socio-spatial changes in old urban districts (Danwei compounds) in Chinese cities as a result of two major reforms at the national level: the reform and opening up and urban housing reforms in 1978 and 1997. Existing research shows that there have been major changes in political, economic and social aspects of Danwei compounds. However, there is a lack of research on micro-level change. In order to understand how these reforms affected the socio-spatial scheme of Danwei Compounds, the study used maps, key person interviews and field observations at the AMS site, Hefei City, Anhui Province. This paper compared the AMS Danwei Compound before and after the reforms in terms of public space, building features, and campus management. The study found that the AMS Danwei Compound experienced a significant reduction of public space, an increase in building density, and a reconfiguration of complex management actors. The study suggests that local planning authorities and governments need to pay attention to the planning and design of the old city core by emphasizing the improvement of public spaces, paying attention to compact design principles for urban neighborhood planning and establishing local community governance bodies.

The “Danwei” system, also known as “work unit”, is a unique community-level socio-spatial system that emerged after the founding of the People’s Republic of China (PRC) in 1949. There is the Chinese word “Danwei”. . collective term for people who are not a natural unit in human society. For example, “Danwei” can refer to a school, hospital, government institution, factory, etc. The Danwei system was established to gain the national mobilization capacity to restore the economy and industrialize productivity [1]. This system is generally considered to have contributed significantly to the physical form of Chinese cities, in addition to the economic, political, social and spatial structure of modern China, especially during the 20th century. From a spatial point of view, Danweis is physically identified as the Danwei Complex: a mixed work-life district enclosed by walls [2]. The interior is often a mix of office, residential and public facilities with various spaces and facilities for employee work, housing, catering, but also recreation, sports, fitness and basic medical care. Long after its creation, it was the basic unit in the construction of city districts [3].

However, after the 1990s, certain changes began to occur in the compound due to the decline of the socio-spatial macrosystem on which it was based. This decline was fueled by two of China’s most important reforms of the second half of the 20th century – the Reform and Opening Up (1978) and the Urban Housing Reform (1997). On the one hand, the Reform and Opening that began in 1978 took the foundations of the economic and social structure of the Danwei system with significant impacts on space, society, and economy [4]. Before this reform, China implemented a planned economy system where most public goods were rationed [5]. In this planned system, the entire society was demonetized and therefore there was no free market where goods could be freely bought and sold for money. Thus, urban residents had to belong to a recognized government organization or institution (Danwei) to gain access to industrial or agricultural products [6]. This system bound all citizens to the same social system and formed a single community of interests. However, this so-called class-neutral planned economy led to low levels of productivity and other social problems such as urban-rural dualism, and thus the need for reforms [7]. As a result, reform and opening up began in 1978, which led, among other things, to the restoration of private property and the use of money to buy and sell goods [5]. On the social front, the notion of China as one original “united community” was removed, allowing the population to move freely throughout the country. As a result, a social organization independent of the Danwei system spread after 1978. However, due to historical inertia, the slow integration of a market-based society, and the apparent contradiction between the goal of the reform and the local reality, urban housing reform was not acceptable. introduced until 1997.

On the other hand, the urban housing reform is considered to have particularly affected the spatial foundation of Danwei. It was a top-down reform of urban housing and land use. Before this reform, all urban land and housing resources belonged to the state and could not be traded [8]. The government would typically assign the right to use the land to Danweis, while ownership and title to the land remains with the state. Danwei would build the compound and thus control the land and the house. After the urban housing reform in 1997, the ownership rights of residential houses in Danwei complexes were divided among individual residents, leading to a gradual loss of Danwei (organizational unit) control over their territory. He hoped that this led to the creation of a new real estate market that allowed people to own houses as well (while land ownership remained with the state) [8]. Although the above-mentioned reforms contributed to rapid economic growth, they also triggered a fundamental transformation of the social and spatial structure of Chinese cities [9]. Unfortunately, the fundamental changes in the complex Danwei socio-spatial system affected by these reforms have not attracted significant empirical attention in the scholarly literature. Previous studies of the Danwei system and Danwei compounds have addressed the historical [10, 11], political [7], economic [12] and social [9] aspects of Danwei. However, most of these studies focus on the urban scale rather than the micro-neighborhood or complex level. Some studies that focus on the micro-level do not provide a historical context for socio-spatial change. For example, Peiling [13] studied the micro-level characteristics of the Jingmian Danwei complex in Beijing, which revealed dislocated identities in the socio-spatial relations between residents without engaging with the historical context of the reforms. This also applies to the study by Zhang et al. [14] on spatial changes in the Beijing Danwei complex by analyzing its maps between the 1990s and 2006.

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To fill the research gap in the study of socio-spatial changes in the Danwei compound, this study uses a comparative time-domain approach. The study is guided by the question: what are the concrete social and spatial changes in the Danwei complex after the reforms. By comparing the socio-spatial elements of the Danwei compound at different time periods, the study sheds light on the changes that have occurred in the compound. This study hypothesizes that these analyzes can provide useful insights into the challenges and potential for effective community-level planning at this critical stage of urban development in ancient Chinese cities. From an urban planning perspective—and in the context of China’s current urban transformation and rapid urban renewal planning in the core of old cities—effective locally oriented planning and spatial development warrants an analysis of the socio-spatial changes that have emerged as a result of the reforms. displayed. imperatives and necessities. Therefore, this study is an extension of an earlier study on the city of Hefei and the Danwei complex by the authors [15, 16].

The work is divided into six sections. Section 2 explains the conceptual and analytical framework of this paper. After part 3, the methodology is presented, and in part 4, the results are presented. Section 5 and Section 6 present the discussion and conclusion.

Since its inception in the 20th century, the concept of “neighborhood”, the basic unit of the urban environment, includes the dual meaning of urban geographical space and human life [17]. In others

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