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X-rays are usually produced by accelerating (or decelerating) charged particles; Examples include the electron beam impinging on a metal plate in an X-ray tube and the circulating electron beam in a synchrotron particle accelerator or storage ring. In addition, highly excited atoms can emit X-rays with discrete wavelengths characteristic of the energy level spacing in the atoms. The X-ray region of the electromagnetic spectrum lies well outside the visible wavelength range. However, the passage of X-rays through materials, including biological tissue, can be recorded using photographic film and other detectors. Analysis of X-ray images of the body is a valuable medical diagnostic tool.
X-rays are a type of ionizing radiation – when they interact with matter, they have enough energy to eject electrons from neutral atoms. Through this ionization process, the energy of X-rays is stored in matter. When X-rays enter living tissue, they can cause harmful biochemical changes in genes, chromosomes, and other cellular components. The biological effects of ionizing radiation are complex and highly dependent on the duration and intensity of exposure, and are still intensively studied (
X-rays were discovered by the German physicist Wilhelm Konrad Roentgen in 1895 when he was studying the effect of electron beams (then called cathode rays) on electric discharges through low-pressure gases. X-rays revealed an amazing effect – namely, a screen coated with a fluorescent material placed outside the discharge tube glowed even when the gas discharge was directly visible and shielded from ultraviolet rays. He concluded that invisible radiation from the tube entered the air and caused the screen to fluoresce. X-rays were able to show that the radiation responsible for the fluorescence came from the electron beam hitting the glass wall of the discharge tube. Opaque objects placed between the tube and the screen became transparent to the new form of radiation; X-rays demonstrated this in a remarkable way by photographing the bones of the human hand. His discovery of so-called X-rays created worldwide scientific and public enthusiasm, and together with the discovery of radioactivity (1896) and the electron (1897), launched the exploration of the atomic world and the era of modern physics. Absorption strips. The Earth’s atmosphere (grey) bounds the atmospheric window (middle panel). Their effects on downward solar radiation and upward thermal radiation emitted near the surface are shown in the top panel. Individual absorption spectra of the most important greenhouse gases, as well as Rayleigh scattering, are shown in the lower region.
Atmospheric window – the range of wavelengths of the electromagnetic spectrum that pass through the Earth’s atmosphere. The three main atmospheric windows are the optical window, the infrared window, and the radio window.
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Windows provide direct channels through which the earth’s surface receives electromagnetic energy from the sun and emits thermal radiation from the surface to space.
In the study of the greenhouse effect, the term “atmospheric window” may be limited to the infrared window, which is the primary escape route for a portion of the heat radiation emitted near the surface.
Atmospheric windows, especially optical and infrared windows, affect the distribution of energy flux and temperature within the Earth’s energy balance. The windows themselves depend on clouds, water vapor, greenhouse gases, and other components of the atmosphere.
A portion of this transferred amount is emitted from the earth’s surface, and the rest comes from the lower regions of the atmosphere. Additionally, the infrared window transmits some of the downward thermal radiation emitted by the cold upper atmosphere to the surface.
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The “window” concept is useful for qualitative understanding of some important features of atmospheric radiative transport. A rigorous quantitative analysis requires a complete characterization of the absorption, emission, and scattering coefficients of the atmospheric medium (typically done with atmospheric radiative transfer codes). Application of the Lambert-Beer law may lead to sufficient numerical estimates for wavelengths where the atmosphere is optically thin. The properties of the window are often encoded in the absorption profile.
Until the 1940s, astronomers used optical telescopes to observe distant astronomical objects whose radiation reached Earth through an optical window. Then, with the development of radio telescopes, a successful field of radio astronomy emerged, based on the analysis of observations through the radio window.
Communications satellites often rely on atmospheric windows to transmit and receive signals: satellite-to-ground communications are established at frequencies that match the spectral bandwidth of the atmospheric windows.
Shortwave radio does the opposite, using frequencies that emit sky waves instead of those that the radio avoids through windows.
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Both active (satellite or aircraft signal, sensor-detected reflection) and passive (sensor-detected sunlight reflection) long-range satellite techniques work with wavelengths contained in atmospheric windows. Sound is a form of energy that allows us to hear. It spreads in the form of waves. Sound waves can be characterized by five characteristics. Read this article about it.
The sensation we perceive with our ears is called sound. It is a form of energy that allows us to hear. In our daily life, we hear different sounds around us. We know that sound travels in the form of waves. A wave is an oscillating disturbance in a medium that carries energy from one point to another without direct contact between the two points. We can say that a wave is created by the vibrations of the particles of the medium it passes through. There are two types of waves: longitudinal waves and transverse waves. Longitudinal wave: A wave in which the particles of the medium vibrate back and forth in the “same direction” as the wave travels. The medium can be solid, liquid or gas. Therefore, sound waves are longitudinal waves. Transverse wave: A wave in which the particles of the medium vibrate up and down at “right angles” to the direction of motion of the wave. These waves occur only in solids and liquids, but not in gases. Sound is a longitudinal wave that propagates through a medium, consisting of compressions and rarefactions. Sound waves can be characterized by five characteristics: wavelength, amplitude, duration, frequency, and velocity or velocity. 1. Wavelength Source: www.sites.google.com The minimum distance at which a sound wave repeats is called the wavelength. In other words, it is a full wavelength. It is denoted by the Greek letter λ (lambda). We know that the combined length of compression and attenuation in a sound wave is called the wavelength. Additionally, the distance between two consecutive compressions or two rarefaction centers is equal to its wavelength. Note: The distance between the centers of compression and adjacent dilution is equal to half of their wavelength, i.e. H. λ/2. The SI unit for measuring wavelength is the meter (m). 2. Amplitude When a wave crosses a medium, the particles of the medium temporarily move from their original, undisturbed position. When a wave passes through a medium, the maximum displacement of the particles in the medium from their original undisturbed position is called the amplitude of the wave. In fact, amplitude is used to describe the size of a wave. The SI unit for amplitude is the meter (m), but it is sometimes measured in centimeters. Did you know that the amplitude of a wave is equal to the amplitude of the vibrating body that creates the wave? 3. Time Interval The time required to generate a complete wave or cycle is called the time interval of the wave. A complete wave is produced by the complete oscillation of an oscillating body. So we can say that the time required to complete the oscillation is the time period. It is denoted by the letter T. The unit of measurement for a period is seconds (s). Why is speed and velocity not always the same? 4. Frequency Source: www.media.openschool.com The number of complete waves or cycles that occur in one second is called the frequency of the wave. Since a full-wave oscillation is formed by one complete oscillation of a body, the number of oscillations per second can be called frequency. Example: If 10 complete waves or oscillations occur in one second, the frequency of the waves is 10 hertz or 10 cycles.
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