What Are Produced When A Base Is Mixed With Water

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What Are Produced When A Base Is Mixed With Water

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Guangdong Saskatchewan Oilseed Joint Laboratory, Department of Food Science and Engineering, Jinan University, 601 Huangpu Avenue West, Guangzhou 510632, China

Received: October 15, 2021 / Revised: November 10, 2021 / Accepted: November 15, 2021 / Published: November 18, 2021

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Fossil fuels are a major contributor to climate change, and as the demand for energy production increases, other sources (eg, renewables) are becoming increasingly popular. Biofuels such as bioethanol reduce dependence on fossil fuels and can complement existing sets of internal combustion engines. The incorporation of biofuels can reduce the carbon dioxide emissions of fleet engines (ICE). Bioethanol is usually produced by fermenting fermentable sugars, such as glucose, to ethanol. Traditional foods (eg, first-generation foods) include grains, sugar cane, and sugar beet. However, due to food safety concerns, lignocellulosic (second generation) and algal biomass (third generation) feedstocks have been investigated. Ethanol yield from fermentation depends on many factors. This review compares the production of bioethanol from different sources, and describes the available technology, including the fermentation process. The importance of maintaining nutritional homeostasis of yeast is also being investigated. The purpose of this review is to provide industry developers and policy makers with an understanding of existing technologies, bioethanol yields achieved through current production processes and future development goals.

The continued growth of the world economy has increased the use of energy and concerns about the accumulation of greenhouse gases in the atmosphere, and its effect on climate change. In response, many countries are developing renewable energy, including biofuel production. Biofuel is any wood produced from biomass, such as organic waste [1], and such fuels can have a significantly reduced ecological footprint compared to conventional fossil fuels [2]. One such biofuel is bioethanol, the production of which is estimated at more than 130 billion liters/year worldwide [3], with the United States and Brazil supplying most of the world’s ethanol [4]. Bioethanol is ethanol (alcohol) produced by microbial fermentation of carbohydrates from plants or algae (for example, corn, sugar cane, wheat, lignocellulosic biomass, etc.).

Microbial fermentation is a natural process used to break down large molecules into smaller ones. Before fermentation, a pretreatment process may be required to prepare the biomass for extraction and fermentation. After preparation, enzymatic hydrolysis can produce fermentable monosaccharides and disaccharide sugars. Yeast then transforms those sugars (for example, glucose, galactose, and fructose) to ethanol, carbon dioxide, and other products in a process of metabolism that can occur under both aerobic and anaerobic conditions. For example, a molecule of glucose produces two molecules of pyruvate during glycolysis. The two molecules of pyruvic acid are then reduced to two molecules of ethanol and carbon dioxide [5]. Under anaerobic conditions, pyruvate can be converted to acetaldehyde with release of carbon dioxide. Then, acetaldehyde can be reduced to ethanol by alcohol dehydrogenase [6].

Traditional alcoholic fermentation (first-generation bioethanol production) used food crops such as food grains (for example, wheat, corn, potatoes, beets, sugar cane), because these materials are high sources of readily available starch and sugar needed for fermentation. However, as the world’s population increases and arable land is still limited, there has been increased concern about the production of oil from food. Therefore, non-edible sources of biomass, such as lignocellulosic materials and algae, are being investigated as environmental resources for the production of bioethanol. As a result, the production of bioethanol can be done by increasing the amount of raw materials. With the development of ethanol production technology, it is now possible to produce ethanol from a large amount of biomass resources for consumption. Fermentation technology that allows the production of bioethanol from previously used biomass sources is often chosen as a new generation. Biomass production methods are also classified based on factors related to fermentation conditions. The combination of water and sugar in fermentation media and the use of batch or continuous processes are used in fermentation technology groups. Other techniques can also be applied to a fermentation medium to further maximize ethanol yield. The purpose of this review is to describe the current knowledge of fermentation materials and fermentation technologies used in bioethanol production. In addition, this study looks at other variables that affect ethanol yield.

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Currently, industrial bioethanol production is divided into three generations depending on the type of feed used (Figure 1) [7]. Processes found in all generations of biofuels include: (1) pretreatment, (2) hydrolysis (although not required in sugarcane fermentation), and (3) conversion of sugar into bioethanol by fermentation. Some feedstocks require pretreatment conditions (ie, lignocellulosic feedstock and algal biomass) to produce fermentable sugars in the media. Without pretreatment, fermentation progress can be slowed due to limited availability of fermentable sugars for metabolism. In addition, the genetics of raw materials can contribute to variation in sugar content and affect fermentation ethanol yield [8]. Currently, fourth-generation bioethanol production methods are being investigated that use genetically engineered organisms to enhance fermentation. However, these methods have not yet been implemented on an industrial scale.

The first generation of bioethanol comes from the fermentation of biomass with a large amount of starch (for example, wheat, corn) and/or sugar (for example, sugar, sugar beet). The industrial production of smoke and potable ethanol using first-generation technology is largely commercialized in many countries, although the raw material required varies. The most common food crop in the United States is corn [9], while in Canada both corn and wheat are widely used [10]. In Brazil, sugarcane is the main source of food, and in Europe, the ethanol industry mainly uses potatoes, wheat and beets [12]. These high-quality products require pretreatment to obtain the highest ethanol yield (Table 1). The production of ethanol with first-generation technology and raw materials is criticized for the use of crops that can be used as human food or animal feed [13]. However, the production of bioethanol can provide a way to process crops into useful products and recover damaged grains that would otherwise be discarded [14]. For example, due to the presence of mycotoxins (eg, deoxynivalenol), corn with fusarium head blight can be toxic to humans or other animals. However, contaminated grains can be reduced by yeast-based fermentation followed by food processing using insects (for example, red soldier fly; Hermetia illucens) [15] and lactic acid bacteria [16]. The process of recovering cereal products that are likely to be lost can reduce economic losses, especially due to fungal diseases in cereals such as wheat and barley [ 15 , 16 ]. After removing toxins, insects and lactic acid bacteria can be used in the production of animal feed proteins. Fermented by-products of edible plants are also considered processed foods. Wet distillers grains are made from fermented grains that contain more protein than the original grains. Wet distillers grain can be mixed directly into feed or mixed with distillers solubles, a fermentation byproduct, and also dried to be sold as expensive animal feed.

Unlike the amount of starch or sugar found in the food of the first generation, the second generation of bioethanol often uses non-nutritive sources [7], such as lignocellulosic materials and agricultural forest residues (for example, wood) [13, 17] . Although the use of these animals for the production of ethanol does not directly compete with the production of food, the second generation of food requires advanced technologies and facilities [16] to process it before fermentation [18]. Lignocellulosic biomass materials are mainly composed of cellulose, hemicellulose, and lignin. These molecules tend to form very resistant structures due to their strong covalent bonds and large van der Waal and hydrogen bonding [19]. This makes the lignocellulosic biomass resistant to chemical and biological degradation, and therefore, treatment methods should be used to interrupt the lignocellulosic process before starting the biorefinery and fermentation process [19]. Common methods may include physical (eg, digestion, temperature, ultrasonication), chemical (eg, acid and alkaline treatments, organic solvent treatment), physicochemical (eg, poison or CO).

Blast treatment), or biological

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