In What Way Are All Living Organisms On Earth Similar – In this unit you will learn about the difference between living and non-living things, different organisms, cells, (you will look at cells under a microscope) and the five Kingdoms.
You will study different groups of organisms under an evolutionary perspective. OUR BIG QUESTION IS: WHAT IS ALL LIFE ABOUT?
In What Way Are All Living Organisms On Earth Similar
Characteristics of living things: Living things have many things in common: – First, every living thing has to perform three important functions: food, interaction and reproduction. -Second, living things are the same things: inorganic (water and minerals) and organic (carbohydrates, lipids, proteins, and nucleic acids). Biomolecules perform many functions in the body: store energy, create structures, be part of chemical reactions, and store genetic information. -And third, living organisms are made up of cells, one or more; and there are two types, prokaryotic and eukaryotic. Levels of organization of living organisms: subatomic particles – atoms – molecules – biomolecules – organelles – cells – colonies – bodies – organs – systems – organisms.
Life Processes Of Living Things
ALL LIVING ORGANISMS ARE CELLS: cells are the smallest unit of life that can perform three important functions. Cell types: Prokaryotic and eukaryotic. Prokaryotic means a simple cell without a nucleus or organelles and Eukaryotic means a cell with organelles and a nucleus. Eukaryotic cells are more sophisticated than Prokaryotic cells. Organelles are important parts of cells that have different functions. Parts of the prokaryotic cell that we need to know: Capsule, cell wall and membrane: these layers provide protection Cytoplasm: chemical reactions or occur here, it is a gel-like substance Ribosome: making DNA proteins: it is in the cytoplasm and stores genetic information Flagella (látigo) and pili (pelos) are available for transport. There are two types of eukaryotic cells: plant cells and animal cells. Parts of the Eukaryotic cell that we need to know: Cytoplasm, membrane, cell wall (only in plant cells), ribosomes, and: Mitochondria: cellular respiration occurs, carries energy Chloroplasts: they contain chlorophyll to carry out photosynthesis (only plants have water cells) and small Vacu cells. big. NUCLEUS: the most important part: stores DNA and organizes cell functions. The shape of a cell depends on the function that the cell performs in the living organism.
ANSWERS IN YOUR FIRST LEARNING: 1.-Compare Prokaryotic and Eukaryotic cells (differences and similarities). Make a table with 3 rows: the first row: prokaryotic, the second row: both and the third row: Eukaryotic 2.-Comparison of Animal and Plant cells (paragraphs and similarities): make a table as in exercise 1 but now with a plant, Animal Cells and their equipment according to the metric system: 1 = m 0.01 = 0.0 cm = 0.0 -1 = 0.0 -1 = 0.0 cm = 0.0 -1 = 0.0 -1 = 0.0 -1 = 0.0 -1 = 0.0 1 = 0. 10 -6 micrometer 0.000000001= 10 -9 nanometer 0.000000000001 = 10 -12 picometer Relative Size of Biological Materials Eukaryotic cell (plant) = ~ ~ 100 μm Eukaryotic cell (animal.) 5 mi. =~1 – 10μm Prokaryotic Cell (bacteria) =~1 – 5μm Virus =~100 nm Plasma Membrane =~7.5 nm Molecule (eg glucose) =~1 nm Atom =~100 pm Characteristics of optical microscope: (very useful for examining cells, cells are very small)
ALL LIVING THINGS DO THREE MAIN FUNCTIONS HOW DO LIVING THINGS EAT? Food is a combination of several processes: 1.- eat by taking material and energy from the environment, 2.- transform it into their own material, 3.- remove any waste. Self-sustaining nutrition: plants and algae and some bacteria eat organic compounds such as water, carbon dioxide and mineral salts and, using sunlight, produce their organic compounds. This process is called Photosynthesis and is produced in chloroplasts. CO2 + H2O + Sunlight —————– Glucose + O2 Heterotrophic nutrition: animals, fungi, protozoa and some bacteria need to get food from other living organisms. Energy synthesis: cellular respiration occurs in eukaryotes within the mitochondria. Glucose is burned using oxygen to produce energy, carbon dioxide and water. Glucose + O2 ——————————– Energy + CO2 + H2O HOW DOES IT WORK? Sexual and asexual reproduction. Asexual reproduction requires two parents combining their genetic information to produce different children, but reproduction requires only one parent to split into two or more to produce two or more children. HOW DOES LIFE CONNECT? Living organisms receive information from the outside with their bodies (energy substances) and give responses: cell movements, or other forms of communication. ANSWER IN YOUR FIRST BOOK: Why should people eat? And drink? ALL LIVING ORGANISMS SHARE THE SAME BASIC ELEMENTS: These things are called biomolecules or elements, they can be divided into two groups: Inorganic and Organic. There are two minerals: Water and mineral salts. Water is very important to cells because it forms parts and is where chemical reactions take place. Mineral salts are very different chemicals, they are also involved in chemical reactions and some of them perform other functions, such as parts of the body (calcium). There are four organic biomolecules: Carbohydrates, Lipids, Proteins and Nucleic Acids. Starch is sweet, which is why it is also called sugar. The most important are sugars, carbohydrates and cellulose. Their functions are: to create structures in the cell and to store and release energy to the cell. Lipids are also called fats. They are very large materials whose functions are to make structures (membranes) and to produce and store energy. Fat has 3 times more energy than carbohydrates. Proteins are large substances with many different functions: participating in chemical reactions, creating structures, creating hormones, etc. Nucleic acids are present in all cells because DNA is one of them. The job is to carry the genetic information that the cell needs to carry. Our body receives biomolecules from food, can you guess which food contains different biomolecules? Write in YOUR BOOK: What are the functions of biological molecules? For example for each function.
Classification of organisms: TAXONOMÍA SYSTEM Carl Linnaeus developed a system for classifying organisms based on common characteristics. This system means 5 Kingdoms. Kingdoms are made up of other groups of organisms that share certain characteristics, Phyla, and Phyla are made up of other smaller groups called Classes, and so on. The order of the groups from largest to smallest is: Kingdom – Phylum – Class – Order – Family – Genus – Species How can you remember the order? Use this sentence: “King Phillip Came Over For Good Spaghetti” A scientific name is a name in Latin that all organisms have and includes the name of the genus and species. Examples: Homo sapiens, Canis lupus, Canis familiaris, etc. THIRD LIMITATION SYSTEM As scientists learn more about organisms, classification systems change. Genetic sequencing has given researchers a new way to analyze the relationships between organisms. The current system, the Triple Habitat System, groups organisms primarily based on differences in ribosomalRNA(rRNA) structure. Ribosomal RNA is the molecular building block of ribosomes. Under this system, organisms are divided into three regions and six kingdoms. The domains are Archaea, Bacteria, and Eukarya. The kingdoms are Archaebacteria (ancient bacteria), Eubacteria (true bacteria), Protista, Fungi, Plantae, and Animalia.
All Living Organisms Are Made Of Cells. [ ]
ABOUT: A species is a group of organisms that can reproduce and have children. A group of one species forms a Genus. This species has a scientific name made up of the genus and the species name: Homo sapiens (Era is Homo, species is sapiens). 5 kingdom criteria for kingdom classification: cell type, cell number and food type. 1. Monera- Bacteria and Cyanobacteria (Prokaryotic)- Unicellular – Autotrophic or heterotrophic.- Asexual Reproduction 2. Protoctist – Protozoa and Algae – Unicellular and multicellular- No tissues – Autotrophic and heterotrophic – Asexual Reproduction – 3. Asexual Reproduction – 3. Mosses, Ferns, Flowering Plants – multicellular – tissue – autotrophic – Asexual and sexual reproduction 5. Animals: vertebrates and invertebrates- multicellular -tissue s – heterotrophic – Sexual reproduction
The Natural History Museum of London has a great website for students. Contains videos about biodiversity, questions, and pictures.
Brasil is building a park and a city in the middle of the Amazon rainforest! Find out about it here. Greenpeace informs you.
PROJECT: LIVING ORGANISMS Find here the project instructions. You have to send me your project, when you save before sending, change the name of the project to your name; NAME NAME AND GROUP. I don’t edit anonymous projects. Although every effort has been made to follow the reference style rules, there may be variations. Please refer to the appropriate organization manual or other resources if you have any questions.
Evolution Of Life
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