How To Neutralize Sulfuric Acid – Acid-base titration, one of the most basic experiments taught in school, helps us calculate the concentration of a solution of a known volume. This article provides you with a step-by-step procedure of this experiment with corresponding implications.
Titration is simply defined as a procedure in which an acid reacts with a base of known volumes and unknown concentrations. Using known values, the concentration of a compound (analyte or titre) can be calculated by reacting or neutralizing with another chemical compound called a titrant. An indicator solution is used to determine the end point of the reaction between both solutions. This experiment uses the indicator phenolphthalein, which involves a reaction between sodium hydroxide (titrant) and sulfuric acid (titrant). It is colorless in acids and is indicated by a color whose endpoint changes to pink when the entire volume of the analyte reacts with a small amount of titrant.
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. It is a highly corrosive acid made from sulfur dioxide and is known to be one of the most widely used products in the chemical industry. Sodium hydroxide (NaOH) is also an important base used in factories involved in the production of cleaning products, water treatment techniques and paper products. This compound is a strong alkali and is also known as lye and/or caustic soda. The following paragraphs will explain the entire titration procedure in a classic chemistry experiment format.
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1. Clean the burette first with distilled water (DW), then rinse with sodium hydroxide (NaOH) solution. This ensures that the inside of the burette is coated with a thin layer of NaOH solution.
. This is done by carefully pipetting about 10 ml of this solution and leaving it in the sink. Do not let it enter your mouth or touch any part of your body.
3. Now attach the burette to the rack and fill it with NaOH solution just above the zero ml mark. By opening the stopcock, pour a little solution from a clean 100 ml bottle to remove air bubbles from the burette. Refill to the zero ml mark with the bottom meniscus of the solution just above that mark.
5. Add 2-3 drops of phenolphthalein indicator to the acid and hold the flask on a white sheet of paper just below the neck of the burette.
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6. Now hold the flask just below the top of the burette and slowly turn the stopcock to drop the NaOH solution into the flask. At the same time, continue to gently swirl the bottle as the sodium hydroxide begins to react with the acid.
7. When the mixture shows a slight pink color on the white paper, close the tap and stop adding the base.
8. Turn 2 or 3 more times to see if the pink color disappears. If it remains, the reaction is complete and the mixture becomes colorless again, start slowly adding the base until a color change is noticed.
9. Record the reading of the volume used by the NaOH to react with the acidic solution. This is done by observing the position of the lower meniscus in the burette.
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10. Repeat this process at least 3 times using 3 different vials and record the NaOH readings each time. Average all three readings to calculate the sulfuric acid concentration.
1. The indicator used, i.e. phenolphthalein, has a colorless to pink end point. This means that it is colorless in acids and pink in bases. Therefore, the acid solution remains colorless as it is added to the flask at the beginning of the process. A color change is observed when a certain volume of NaOH reacts with acid; It is very important to stop adding titrant at this point, as any additional amount can give an incorrect reading, leading to completely wrong calculations. At this point the reaction is complete, the indicator detects the presence of sufficient base solution in the mixture and therefore turns pink.
2. The reaction between sulfuric acid and sodium hydroxide is acid-base type or also known as neutralization reaction. In this process, both compounds react to neutralize their acidic and basic properties. The products of this process are salt and water. The first occurs when the base cation (positively charged ion) combines with the acid anion (negatively charged ion). In chemistry, the cation of the base NaOH, i.e. Na+, combines with the anion of the acid H.
. This gives Na2SO4. As a result of the reaction between the cations (H) of the acid, water is formed.
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3. In this process, 2 moles (molecular weight of the substance expressed in grams) of sodium hydroxide (NaOH) are combined with one mole of sulfuric acid (H).
). The net ionic equation (a chemical equation in which electrolytes are written as dissociated ions) can be explained as follows:
Thus, the net ionic equation of sulfuric acid and sodium hydroxide, after tracer ion crossover, is:
Let’s find the molarity or concentration of the sulfuric acid solution from the given and observed data (molarity and observed volume of sodium hydroxide).
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For example, during three rounds of the experiment, the amount of NaOH needed to react with sulfuric acid is 12 ml, 13 ml, and 12.5 ml, respectively. So, taking the average, 12.5 ml of NaOH concentration neutralized the unknown acid. Assume the molarity of sodium hydroxide is 0.1 mol/L. The formula for calculating the number of moles of solution is:
So, according to the equation 1 mentioned above, exactly half of the number of moles of sulfuric acid appears in the reaction; that is, the number of moles required for the neutralization process:
The volume of sulfuric acid used in this experiment is 10 ml. By rearranging the above formula we can find the molarity or concentration of H.
Titration experiments are not only useful for understanding neutralization reactions between acids and bases, they are also useful for stoichiometry, industrial applications, groundwater analysis, hard water and detergent studies, etc. It also helps us understand reactions associated with End point is not always characterized by a color change; In some experiments this can also be demonstrated by the precipitation and change in electrical conductivity of the reactants.
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Cookies that may not be particularly necessary for the operation of the website and are used specifically to collect user personal data through analytics, ads, other embedded content are called non-essential cookies. It is mandatory to obtain user consent before running these cookies on your website. ■ Neutralization reaction ► Produces salt and water by reaction between acid and alkali. ► The hydrogen ion H+ from the acid combines with the hydroxide ion OH− from the alkali and forms H2O. ► Examples of neutralization reactions: ○ HCl(aq) + NaOH(aq) → NaCl(aq) + H2O(l) ○ 2HNO3(aq) + Mg(OH)2 → Mg(NO3)2(aq) + 2H2O(l) ) ) ○ CH3COOH(aq) + NaOH(aq) → CH3COONa(aq) + H2O(l) ■ Heat of neutralization ► When 1 mol of hydrogen ion H+ neutralizes 1 mol of hydroxide ion OH−, the released heat creates 1 mol of water. ■ The amount of heat released during the neutralization reaction depends on: ► the concentration of the acid or alkali ► the amount of acid and alkali ► the alkalinity of the acid ■ the concentration of the acid or alkali ► the heat released in the reaction of a strong acid with a strong alkali, in the reaction of a weak acid with a strong alkali greater than the released heat. ○ Strong acid + Strong base 1 mol of HCl reacts with 1 mol of NaOH, producing 57.0 kJ of heat. ○ Weak acid + Strong base 1 mol CH3COOH reacts with 1 mol NaOH to give 55.0 kJ.
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