How To Find Density Of A Cylinder – The protocol for measuring shoot density is standardized by modern pharmacopoeias (USP, Ph. Eur, ISO, …). However, despite being used for decades, these protocols are based on old techniques that lead to a lack of accuracy and repeatability.
Granular materials and fine powders are widely used in industrial applications. To control and speed up methods, these materials are precisely identified. The characterization methods are related either to the properties of the grains (granulometry, morphology, chemical composition, …) and to the behavior of the bulk powder (flowability, density, stability of the mixture, electrostatic properties, …). However, the physical mass behavior of powders, mostly for techniques used in R&D or quality control laboratories, is based on old measurement techniques. Over the past decades, these techniques have been updated to meet the current requirements of R&D laboratories and production departments. In particular, the automation of the measurement processes and the precise initialization of the method have been improved to achieve a reproducible and interpretable result. And the use of image analysis improves the precision of the artificial measurement. Many industries already use tools in different fields: additive manufacturing, food processing, pharmaceuticals, handling bulk materials.
How To Find Density Of A Cylinder
Impact density is a popular measure of powder characterization due to its simplicity and speed of measurement. The ability of the powder sample to collect under the taps provides a measure of the powder’s cohesiveness, which can be related to its flowability. Thus, powders can be easily designed for quality control and process optimization.
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The protocol for measuring shoot density is standardized by modern pharmacopoeias (USP, Ph. Eur, ISO, …). However, despite being used for decades, these protocols are based on old techniques that lead to a lack of accuracy and repeatability. However, accurate and repeatable characterization methods are required or improved for the development of powder grades and production processes. In this regard, an improved tool for measuring the density of the impact was developed based on the latest results of basic research (Lumay.
2013). GranuPack offers high accuracy and guarantees low operator dependency and is a modern version of standardized hit density systems.
The purpose of this application note is to show how the results obtained with the standard procedure can be compared with GranuPack. Two common lactose powders will be investigated and the performance of both techniques will be evaluated. Furthermore, the sources of uncertainty in the standard procedure will be highlighted.
The GranuPack instrument (see fig. 1 left) is automated and better suited for density and impact measurement. The behavior of the powder subjected to subsequent pressure is analyzed with an automated unit. Hausner ratio Hr, initial density ρ(0)
Pcs High Purity Density Graphite Rod Cylinder Tube
, the defined number of taps required for half of the final compaction, can be extracted to characterize the dynamic package.
The powder is placed in a metal tube with a more rigorous automated initialization process. Afterwards, a thin hollow column was placed on top of the powder bed to maintain a flat powder/air interface during the compaction process. A tube containing a powder sample rises to a fixed height Z and forms a free fall. The clearance height is usually fixed at ΔZ = 1mm or ΔZ=3mm. The height h of the powder bed is measured automatically after each shot. From the height h, the roll of the rod V is calculated. Since the dust mass m is known, the density ρ is estimated and plotted after each sound. The density is the ratio between the mass m and the volume of the powder V. With the GranuPack method, the results are reproducible with a small amount of powder (typically 35 ml). The Hausner ratio Hr is related to the compression ratio and is calculated by the equation Hr = ρ (n).
In addition, the possibility of measuring measurements according to the more commonly used performance standards (ISO, USP, ASTM, …) is given to GranuPack. The main cells are designed to comply with the required standards (see Fig. 1 on the right). They follow the protocols described in the standards. So the inductive sense is not used and the measurements are made visually by the operator. This new feature provides more flexibility in the factory, allowing operators to ensure compliance with quality control standards, as well as take advantage of GranuPack’s enhanced law for advanced development and to optimize the implementation process. In what follows, GranuPack will be referred to as “Classic GranuPack” and the standardized protocol will be chosen as the default: USP616.
Tapped density measurements are performed according to the USP616 procedure using a 250 ml graduated cylinder of 2 ml. Taps from a height of 3±0.2 mm made of 250±15 taps/min powder are used. Measurements with taps from a height of 14 mm can also be made according to USP616, but are not considered in this application note.
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Before the measurement, about 100g of powder is poured into the cylindrical bed. The first series of 10, 500 and 1250 taps are added and then the next 1250 taps are followed, while the volume difference between the two consecutive taps is more than 2ml. After each ringing sequence, a measurement of the volume with the naked eye is carried out by the operator.
After infusing the powder by the operator, USP616 calls for “gently smoothing the powder without kneading”. This dust smoothing can easily be achieved without grinding and will introduce variation in the apparent density measurement. Furthermore, this method involves a large dependence on the operator due to the apparent density of the estimate.
Density measurement and visual measurement require an estimation of dust height. Therefore, the measurement accuracy will depend on the precision of the cylinder bed (2ml), but also on the operator who performs the volume reading. Indeed, for medium to highly cohesive dusts, the dust/air interface is highly irregular (Fig. 2a) and the operator must determine the average location of the interface to estimate the solid state of the dust. Furthermore, if the roller bed is not perfectly balanced on the cranes, a slope will occur in the powder bed (Fig. 2b). In this case, the measurement accuracy and operator dependence are even worse.
Figure 2: (a) Irregular powder layer to be observed for cohesive powder. ;
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Measurements require a large amount of powder (~100g) to be used. This is useful to reduce the relative errors of the poll. However, this amount of powder is not available due to production or cost constraints, especially during the development process.
These limitations can now be overcome with the high accuracy and operator-independent measurements of the Classic GranuPack. In the following, we will show how the results obtained with the USP616 protocol can be compared with GranuPack.
A measurement with GranuPack requires only 35 ml of powder. Taps of 3 mm height are selected and a series of 3000 taps are applied at a frequency of 1 sound/s. Reproducibility was assessed by three independent measurements with fresh powder. To remove the operator’s dependence on the dust sources in the measurement cell, the following initialization protocol was developed:
This initialization protocol ensures that dust is always poured in the same way by removing the operator dependency. On the level, the devil of light is carefully placed on a bed of dust. This makes it possible to overcome the bed leveling problems of the standard method.
Density 1 Qp
Once the initialization process is done, the inductive sensor is placed near the devil and the sound sequence starts. After each shot, the powder height is automatically measured by the sensor without operator intervention.
Figure 3 shows the development of bulk density versus the number of tabs obtained with USP616 and GranuPack by the classic process for SuperTab®30GR. The first advantage of the Classic GranuPack is clear, because it gives access to the entire curve of the pack. Therefore, kinematic loads can be investigated, which is not possible with the standard method. In contrast, the standardized method provides only four density measurements according to the USP616 procedure, and allows only the apparent and tapped densities to be examined. Apparent and tapped densities obtained with the GranuPack Classic method are included in the standard deviation of the method, so the differences can be considered non-significant.
The error bars give an estimate of the reproducibility of the measurements. The improvement from Classic GranuPack is evident for both powders. Therefore, the higher accuracy of the dust height measurement with the sensor combined with the absence of operator dependence allows smaller differences in package behavior than standard lifestyles.
Figure 3: Density versus noise figure obtained with Classic GranuPack and USP616 procedures for SuperTab®30GR. Error bars are ± standard deviation of three independent tests.
A Long Cylindrical Volume Contains A Uniformly Distributed Charge Of D
The Hausner ratios calculated as the ratio of apparent to hit densities after 3000 presses are shown in Figure 4. Again, the superior reproducibility of the GranuPack Classic method is clearly evident. Therefore, by removing the dependency of the user with the improved initialization protocol, the GranuPack Ordo procedure helps to improve the reproducibility of the measurement in the long run.
Interestingly, both methods give good results
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