How Did The Industrial Revolution Contribute To Imperialism

How Did The Industrial Revolution Contribute To Imperialism – The neo-imperialists established the government in the native regions for the benefit of the colonial power.

Although the Industrial Revolution and nationalism shaped European society in the 19th century, imperialism—the dominance of one country or people over another—changed the world significantly during the second half of that century.

How Did The Industrial Revolution Contribute To Imperialism

Imperialism did not begin in the nineteenth century. From the 16th to the early 19th century, an era dominated by what is now known as Old Imperialism, European nations sought trade routes with the Far East, explored the New Age, and established settlements in North and South America as well as in Southeast Asia. They established trading posts and gained a foothold on the coasts of Africa and China, working closely with local rulers to ensure the protection of European economic interests. However, their influence is limited. During the New Age of Imperialism beginning in the 1870s, European nations established vast empires mainly in Africa, but also in Asia and the Middle East.

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In contrast to the 16th and 17th century methods of establishing settlements, the neo-imperialists established the administration of indigenous areas for the benefit of the colonial power. The nations of Europe pursued an aggressive expansionist policy driven by the economic needs created by the Industrial Revolution. From 1870 to 1914, Europe experienced a “second industrial revolution”, which accelerated the pace of change as science, technology and industry fueled economic growth. Improvements in steel production have revolutionized shipbuilding and transport. The development of railways, the internal combustion engine and the generation of electricity fueled Europe’s growing industrial economies and their need to find new avenues of expansion.

Expansionist policies were also motivated by political needs that linked empire-building to national greatness, and religious and social reasons that promoted the primacy of Western society over Western society. Through the use of direct military power, economic spheres of influence and annexation, European countries dominated the African and Asian continents. By 1914, Britain controlled the largest number of colonies, and the phrase “the sun never sets on the British Empire” described the vast colonies it held. Imperialism has had consequences that affect colonial countries, Europe and the world. It also led to increased competition between nations and to conflicts that would disrupt world peace in 1914.

European imperialism did not begin in the 19th century. In an attempt to find a direct trade route to Asia during the era of old imperialism, European nations established colonies in the Americas, India, South Africa and the East Indies, while gaining territories along the coasts of Africa and China. Meanwhile, Europe’s commercial revolution created new needs and desires for wealth and raw materials. Mercantilists argued that colonies could serve as a source of wealth, while the personal motives of rulers, statesmen, explorers, and missionaries supported imperial beliefs. In 1800, Great Britain was the leading colonial power with colonies in India, South Africa and Australia. Spain invaded Central and South America. France held French Louisiana and Guinea, and the Netherlands built an empire in the East Indies.

In the first half of the nineteenth century, colonialism became less common. The Napoleonic Wars, the struggle for nationalism and democracy, and the costs of industrialization sapped the energy of European nations. Many leaders also felt that the costs to their respective empires outweighed the benefits, especially the costs of overseeing the colonies. In the mid-19th century, however, Europe—especially Britain and France—began an economic renaissance. During the Victorian era, which lasted from 1837 to 1901, Great Britain became an industrial power, providing more than 25% of the world’s production of manufactured goods. In France, Napoleon’s investment in industry and large-scale ventures, such as railway construction, helped fuel prosperity. Thus, the Industrial Revolution raised ambitions in many European countries and restored their confidence to embark on the path of aggressive expansion abroad.

Industrial Revolution And Imperialism Crossword

From the late 19th century to the early 20th century, Western Europe pursued a policy of imperialism known as New Imperialism. This age of new imperialism received impulses from economic, military, political, humanitarian, and religious reasons, as well as from the development and acceptance of a new theory—Social Darwinism—and technological advances.

In 1870, industrializing nations in Europe needed to expand their markets globally to sell products they could not sell domestically on the continent. Entrepreneurs and bankers have plenty of capital to invest, and foreign investment provides an incentive to earn higher returns, despite the risk. The need for cheap labor and a steady supply of raw materials, such as petroleum, rubber and manganese for steel production, required industrialized nations to maintain firm control over this unexplored area. Only by directly controlling these regions, that is, establishing colonies under their direct control, could the industrial economy function effectively – or so the imperialists believed. However, the economic benefits of neo-imperialism were limited because the new colonies were too poor to spend money on European goods.

Europe’s leading nations also believed that the colonies were essential for military power, national security and nationalism. Military leaders declare that a strong navy is necessary to become a great power. As a result, naval ships need military bases around the world to receive coal and supplies. The island or harbor was occupied to meet these needs. The colonies ensured that European navies developed the safe harbors and coaling stations they needed in wartime. National security was a major reason why Britain decided to occupy Egypt. Defending the Suez Canal was very important to the British Empire. The Suez Canal, officially opened in 1869, shortened the sea route from Europe to South Africa and East Asia. For Britain, the canal was the lifeblood of India, the crown jewel of its empire. Many also believed that the possession of colonies was a sign of a nation’s greatness; Colony is a status symbol. According to the 19th century German historian Heinrich von Treitschke, all great nations wanted to conquer barbarian nations.

Many Westerners believe that Europe should civilize its little brothers beyond the sea. In this view, non-whites would receive the blessings of Western civilization, including medicine, law, and Christianity. Rudyard Kipling (1865–1936) in his famous poem, “White Man’s Burden” expressed this mission in the 1890s when he urged Europeans to fulfill “their moral duty.” is to civilize uncivilized places. He encouraged them to “send your best seeds to meet the needs of your captives.” The missionaries supported colonization, believing that European control would help them spread Christianity, the true religion, in Asia and Africa.

Pdf) Imperialism And Industrialisation In West Africa Up To 1960

. Darwin argued that all life evolved to its present state over millions of years. To explain the long slow process of evolution, Darwin proposed the theory

. The forces of nature chose those whose physical characteristics were best adapted to their environment. Darwin never advanced any social ideas. The process of natural selection is called

. The Englishman Herbert Spencer (1820–1903) was the first to apply “survival of the fittest” to human societies and nations. Social Darwinism promoted the expansion of imperialism by suggesting that some people are more fit (superior) than others. The Europeans believed that they, as the white race, were dominant and that it was as natural for them to conquer the “inferior” people as a natural way to improve humanity. Therefore the subjugation of the inferior is justifiable, and the extermination of the weaker races is the law of nature.

Superior technology and improved medical knowledge helped fuel imperialism. Quinine helped Europeans survive tropical diseases and venture into the mosquito-infested hinterlands of Africa and Asia. The combination of steamships and telegraphs gave the Western powers increased maneuverability and quick response to any situation that threatened their dominance. Fast machine guns also gave them a military advantage and were useful in persuading Africans and Asians to accept Western control. The following table summarizes the causes of neo-imperialism:

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Africa was known as the “Black Continent” and remained unknown to the outside world until the late 19th century because its interior – deserts, mountains, plateaus and jungles – discouraged discovery. The British occupation of Egypt and Belgian entry into the Congo started the race for colonies in Africa.

In 1875, Britain bought control of the Suez Canal from the bankrupt ruler of Egypt, who was unable to repay the loans he took out for the canal and its modernization. of the country. The French, who organized the construction of the Suez Canal under Ferdinand de Lesseps in 1859, owned other shares. The Suez Canal is important because it shortens the route from Europe to South and East Asia. The canal also provided a lifeline to India, which Britain became part of the British Empire in 1858. In 1882, Britain established a protectorate over Egypt, meaning the British Empires. government leaders were servants of the Ottoman Empire, but were actually controlled by it big. England. The British occupation of Egypt, the richest and most developed country in Africa, caused an “African fever” in Europe. To ensure its dominance and stability

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