How Did Humanism Impact Europeans Thinking About Government

How Did Humanism Impact Europeans Thinking About Government – Study for the Libyan Sibyl (recto); Study of the Libyan Sibyl and Sketch of a Seated Figure (verso)

The noble achievements of our distant ancestors, the men of ancient Rome, have been forgotten and become impossible for modern people. Where was the artist’s art until Giotto belatedly restored it? A caricature of a human painting! Sculpture and architecture have been immersed for many years in the misery of art, and are only today in the process of being saved from obscurity; only now they have been brought to a new height of perfection by men of genius and erudition. It is better to be completely silent about liberal arts and letters. For these, the true leaders of excellence in all arts, the solid foundations of all civilizations, have been lost to humanity for 800 years and more. In our day, people boast that they will see the dawn of good things. Matteo Palmieri, La vita civile (1429) [1]

How Did Humanism Impact Europeans Thinking About Government

These ideas, expressed by the Florentine humanist Matteo Palmieri in an interview about civil life and the virtues of the perfect citizen, evoke the optimism of Renaissance humanism. Despite living in an era of wars and epidemics, Palmieri and his contemporaries characterized their era as a revival of classical culture based on riniscita, or humanism – an educational program based on the works of ancient Greek and Latin authors. became a citizen and appreciated humanity’s ability to achieve greatness through knowledge and free will. Humanism looked to antiquity for inspiration to reform society, and the Renaissance had a great impact on all aspects of life in Italy – and wider Europe – from government to the arts.

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Perugino’s fresco shows the influence of Renaissance humanism on art. The background is occupied by two classical arches and Ionic columns, as well as an octagonal temple. Frescoes also depict the vibrant life of Renaissance cities: young men gather in large squares to play ball, or evidence of rational urban planning by humanists and artists. Perugino,

Much of the art of the Renaissance was the product of a fruitful dialogue between artists and humanists. Wealthy patrons sponsored humanist careers and favored works of art influenced by ideas from Greco-Roman antiquity. Inspired by humanist interest in antiquity, artists also used ancient Greek and Roman models to inform their work. Filippo Brunelleschi and Donatello traveled to Rome to learn the principles of harmony, symmetry, and perspective by seeing its ancient ruins and sculptures, and artists (including Sandro Botticelli and Pietro Perudino) began depicting classical poses and mythological allegories in paintings. they [2] Much Italian Renaissance art—even religious works—was based on humanistic principles.

This map of Florence reveals the development of linear perspective and bird’s eye rendering techniques during the Renaissance. Medieval city maps were often flat in space and relied on symbolism to depict important buildings and objects.

(map chain) Florence, p. 1471–72, attributed to Francesco and Raffaello Petrini, engraving, 1.25 x 1.38 m (Palazzo Vecchio, Florence)

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Humanism was the educational and intellectual program of the Renaissance. Based on Latin and Greek literature, it was first developed in Italy in the middle of the 14th century and then spread to the rest of Europe at the end of the 15th century. Called studia humanitatis, or the humanities, this program was thought to train citizens in the moral virtues necessary for an active, virtuous life, and its proponents compared it to the contemplative life of monks and ascetic scholars. they As a product of the Italian city-state republic, humanism was a system born in the city and made for the citizen. While the scholars of previous centuries adopted the classical reading, the humanists rediscovered many lost texts and read them from a critical and secular point of view, and through them formed a new mentality that shaped Italian and European society from mid-14th century. – 17th century.

Although humanist ideas had spread in Italy since the late 12th century, their main proponent was the Florentine poet Francesco Petrarch. Born in exile, Petrarch grew up in Avignon, France, and attended law school in Bologna. Inspired by his love of antiquity and the Latin writings of Cicero, Petrarch abandoned his legal profession to pursue a life as a poet and collector of ancient texts. He spent much of his free time searching for the lost and neglected works of classical authors, and twice found key relics of Cicero’s writings, notably an unknown collection of Cicero’s letters, the Epistolae ad Atticum, from the Chapter Library Verona Cathedral in 1345. . He copied the manuscript from the library and soon distributed it among his friends and colleagues. In the fifteenth century, through the efforts of Petraeus and his followers, Cicero’s philosophical writing style became the standard in Latin prose.

Left: Petrarch achieved fame for his Latin and Italian poetry during his lifetime. In 1341, he became the second writer since ancient times to receive the laureate title for his poetry. Andrea del Castaño,

, s. 1450, fresco on wood, 247 x 153 cm (Uffizi, Florence); Right: This whimsical fresco depicts Cicero as a child reading a book. This image shows the emergence of solitary, silent reading that replaced the oral tradition of the Renaissance. Images of the single readers of the studies were popular throughout the period. Vicenzo Foppa,

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Through these letters and other ancient texts, Petraeus was able to enter the Roman world far from it. Petrarch was the first scholar to recognize the cultural differences between his age and that of Cicero. Of course, the ancient scholars of the Middle Ages used classical literature, but they read these texts through a purely religious lens and saw themselves as living in the same culture as Julius Caesar and the emperor Augustus. It was just a world that had aged and decayed over time. Petrarch, with his historical awareness, recognized that he and his fellow Italians lived in a very different world than their Roman ancestors, who had a different set of values. Petrarch advocated reading Cicero and other Roman authors as a means of finding exemplary models of eloquence and harmony.

To reflect this cultural difference between ancient Rome and fourteenth-century Italy, Petrarch invented a new way of conceptualizing the past. He presented the ancient era as a golden age full of moral people, great deeds and good morals. It was the period from the fall of Rome to his own age, which he thought was the dark ages. Indeed, Petraeus coined the term “medio evo” (middle age) to indicate the decline of Roman values, letters, and art. Petrarch greatly exaggerated the decline of culture in the Middle Ages, with its towering cathedrals and innovations in commerce, science, and theology. Regardless, Petrarch describes his age as a rinascita (rebirth) of classical learning and culture, and created a dark and ignorant image of the Middle Ages – an idea that persists (problem) to this day.

This page from a manuscript edition of Lucretius’s De Rerum Natura shows a humanist script called cursive, which allowed others to easily read and transcribe ancient texts. Lucretius’ philosophical poem was discovered by the humanist Poggio Bracciolini in 1417 in a German monastery. This manuscript is a later transcription made in Paris in 1563. (University of Cambridge)

Petrarch’s bell ringing for the revival of Roman antiquity was popular. At the beginning of the fifteenth century, humanists actively searched the dusty monastic libraries of Italy, France and Germany, and found more letters of Cicero, Epicurean poem Lucretius, On the Nature of Things (De Rerum Natura), and other ancients. the texts. Greek scholars who escaped the Ottoman attack on the Byzantine Empire brought Homer, Plato, Sophocles and other Greek manuscripts to Italy, and also taught ancient Greek to a generation of humanists eager to know and connect with antiquity.

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Nogarola is best known for his debate with the patrician humanist Ludovico Foscarini that resulted in the Dialogue on Adam and Eve (1451). Isotta Nogarola, and Angela Nogarola (his aunt is a poet),

The Humanists were a diverse group of people, but shared a common passion for antiquity and Latin prose and rhetoric. Most humanists came from relatively well-heeled backgrounds—the sons of nobles, patricians, merchants, and notaries. Many patrician women, such as Laura Sereta and Isotta Nogarola, received a humanist education and were able to participate in the intellectual life of the Renaissance, but moralism often discouraged them from pursuing the active life of a teacher, teacher, or writer. Nogarola, a writer from Verona, studied at the Institute of Humanities and debated with male humanists about the role of women in Renaissance society. Hostile in a humanist environment that questioned her chastity, she withdrew from society, never married, and focused on sacred literature rather than secular writing. Patricians and noblewomen often expressed their humanitarian interests by commissioning works of art inspired by the classical tradition. Isabella d’Este, Marquise of Mantua,

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