How Did Germanic Tribes Carve Europe Into Small Kingdoms – Chapter Focus: How did feudalism, the feudal economy and the church shape life in Western Europe, while a new medieval culture was slowly emerging in the region?
2 7.1 – Focus on the early Middle Ages: How did the Germanic tribes divide Western Europe into small kingdoms? Rome falls* Western Europe declines*( ) Politically socially economically “Dark Ages”* Invasions* Trade slowed down* Cities are empty* Decline of learning*
How Did Germanic Tribes Carve Europe Into Small Kingdoms
7.1 – The Early Middle Ages Middle Ages ( ) Middle Ages (Latin for “middle ages”)* – Mixture of Greco-Roman, Germanic and Christian culture
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7.1 – Germanic tribes divide Western Europe in the early Middle Ages* ( ) Goths, Vandals, Saxons, Franks* No written law No city. Peasants and shepherds elect a king – Loyalty of arms
Conquers Gaul Converts to Christianity Battle of Tours (732) Frankish commander Charles Martel defeats Muslims; Stops Muslim immigration to Europe
7.1 – Early Middle Ages Charles the Great “Charles the Great”* (768) King of the Franks* unites Western Europe* (France, Germany, part of Italy) The United Christian Empire* becomes friends III. with Pope Leo and encourages missionary education.
10 7.2 – Feudalism and the castle economy Focus: How did feudalism and the court economy develop and shape medieval life? Feudalism* A system of organized government in which powerful local lords divided their lands among smaller lords*
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Vassal – Small Lord *Pledges loyalty and military service* (40 days) Pledge – Feudal agreement* Receives land from Lord Land (estate) – fief*
Knight – mounted warrior * Training young boys (up to age 7) Competitions – Mock Battles * Courage – Code of Conduct * (Brave, loyal, protect the weak)
Court – lord’s estate* serfs – tied to land* cannot be bought or sold* leaving the lord: food, housing, protection and land serfs: manor work, fees
Self-sufficient – food, clothing, furniture, tools
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25 7.3 – Focus on the medieval church: How did the church play an important role in the Middle Ages?
7.3 – The Christian beliefs of the medieval church The sacraments as part of everyday life – The sacred rights of the church; Priest administration (baptism)* Salvation Church – Village Social Center tithe – Church tax (tithe of income)*
7.3 – Monasteries and monasteries of the medieval church dedicate their lives to spiritual goals Work, worship, Teaching Hospital, School Benedictine Rule* (530) Rules for the regulation of monastic life* Vow: Obedience Poverty Chastity
Excommunication from Christian ecclesiastical law* Cannot receive the sacraments or ecclesiastical burial – Forbidden to hell forever* Whole city, territory or kingdom except in rebellion – forced to obey rulers.
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7.3 – Corruption in the medieval church Marriage, gambling, luxury reform prohibits illicit marriage Simani – Sale of church offices * Ecclesiastical monk * – Traveling monks – Saint Francis of Assisi * Franciscans – First order of Franciscans *
7.4 – Focus of changes in economic boom: How did changes in agriculture and trade lead to the growth of cities and trade? Agricultural Revolution (~1000)* Technology* Iron Belts* – Horses are not faster – Larger fields, more crops grown* Cleaner forests, drainage marshes – More three land systems* – More food population: Europe’s population triples
Feudal warfare and foreign invasions decrease* Trade routes expand – armed caravans fairs* Busy trade routes intersect near rivers
The richest medieval cities: Northern Italy and Flanders (North-South Trade Route) Charter* – a written document recording the rights and privileges of the city Advantage: autonomy is allowed
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Boost in trade Increased use of money* Capital * – Investment cash loans – Late payment Partnerships * Reduced investment risk for all partners * Small farmers paid rent for their land (Employees – Labor)
Middle class – between nobles and peasants (traders, merchants and artisans)* Guilds – associations that represent and protect the economic interests of workers in specific occupations* Apprentice* – Apprentice (age 7-8) Labor for food and housing * – Wage workers
Creating cities and urban life and trading goods
Chapter 7: The Rise Of Europe ( )
Presentations on the following topic: “Describe the goals of Western Europe after the fall of the Western Roman Empire. Describe how the Germanic tribes carved Europe into small kingdoms. Explain.”— Presentation transcript:
1 Objectives Description of Western Europe after the fall of the Western Roman Empire. Show how the Germanic tribes carved Europe into small kingdoms. Explain how Charlemagne reunited most of Western Europe and what happened to his empire after his death.
2 Terms and people Clovis – warrior king of the Franks who founded a kingdom in Western Europe after the fall of the Roman Empire Medieval culture Franks – a Germanic tribe that conquered present-day France and neighboring countries. 400s Charles Martel – a Frankish leader who gathered warriors to push back the Muslims from the Battle of France – the battle that stopped the Muslim Christian advance into Western Europe
Károly Nagy – grandson of Károly Martel; He united Western Europe for a short time when he built an empire that included France and Germany – nomadic people who invaded parts of Eastern Europe and Western Europe after 900 Vikings – farmers from Scandinavia and expert sailors who raided from the late 700s in European river cities.
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As the unifying power of the Roman Empire disappeared from Western Europe, it was replaced by the Germanic kingdoms. During the Middle Ages, Greco-Roman, Germanic and Christian traditions were mixed.
The period between the ancient and the modern era, 500-1500 AD, was called the Middle Ages. After winning a battle in 496, King Clovis established a Christian kingdom in Western Europe. It was one of the many kingdoms that emerged when Roman power collapsed.
The early Middle Ages in Europe declined for several reasons. 2. The region was invaded several times. 3. Commerce and classical learning declined.
At the same time, Muslims established a new civilization and empire in the Mediterranean region. After converting to Christianity, Clovis won the support of his subjects in Gaul and the Pope in Rome.
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He fought the Muslims, helped the Pope in Rome, and was crowned Roman Emperor. Károly Nagy was a brilliant leader who revived Latin learning and brought scholars to his court.
10 Charlemagne spread Christianity throughout his kingdom and established a strong, efficient government. However, the Pope’s actions angered the Emperor of Constantinople and deepened the rift between East and West. Pope Leo revived the idea of a united Christian empire when he crowned Charlemagne emperor of the Romans.
After 50 years, the Hungarians were pushed back to Hungary. The nomadic people known as the Hungarians were among the invaders of Eastern Europe around 900.
They opened trade routes connecting northern Europe with the Mediterranean. Charlemagne’s empire became more fragmented as the Vikings began to attack the coastal and river cities of Europe.
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Download ppt “Objectives Present Western Europe after the fall of the Western Roman Empire. Describe how the Germanic tribes carved Europe into small kingdoms. Explain.”
In the 4th century, most of the Germanic peoples of Europe lived east of the Rhine and north of the Danube. In the east, north of the Black Sea, were the Eastern Goths (Ostrogoths) and the Western Goths (Visigoths). To the west of these tribes and over the large area of the Rhine, the Vandals, Lombards, Alamanni, Burgundians and Franks spread. Jutes, Angles and Saxons lived in and around present-day Denmark.
These groups were seminomadic, tending their flocks and cultivating the soil. Large and vigorous, people admired their strength and courage in battle. They worshiped many gods, including Tiw, the god of war. Wotang, head of the gods; Thor, god of thunder; and Freya, the goddess of fertility. (The names of these gods are preserved in the English words Tuesday, Wednesday, Thursday and Friday.)
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The Germanic tribal assemblies were made up of voting freemen, and their laws were based on the long-established customs of the tribe. These political practices were to have a profound effect on medieval England, where they laid the foundations for the rise of parliamentary government and English common law. In his famous book GERMANIA, the Roman historian Tacitus (AD 55-117) gave a graphic description of the lives of the Germans and sharply contrasted these strong men with the weak, pleasure-loving Roman nobility.
The Germans were proud, like the Goths, Burgundians, Franks and Vandals. They wore German clothes and followed German customs. They had red or brown hair, blue eyes, large stature and generally powerful bodies. They liked war more than work, and drank beer during long races. Besides drinking, gambling was his favorite pastime. Men were primarily despised warriors
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