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How Did Deng Xiaoping’s Economic Policies Change Chinese Culture
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Deng Xiaoping By Alexander V. Pantsov And Steven I. Levine
Deng Xiaoping was the most powerful figure in the People’s Republic of China from the late 1970s until his death in 1997. Although he avoided the most visible leadership positions in the Chinese Communist Party and the government of China, he had considerable influence over both.
As the most powerful figure in the People’s Republic of China from the late 1970s to the late 1990s, Deng Xiaoping spearheaded changes in China that led to a rapidly growing economy, rising living standards and growing ties with the world economy, and he also greatly expanded personal and cultural freedoms.
Deng Xiaoping made important reforms in almost every aspect of China’s political, economic and social life. Most notable among his reforms were China’s one-child policy, instituting decentralized economic management and rational and flexible long-term planning, strengthening China’s commercial and cultural ties with the West, and allowing foreign investment in Chinese companies.
Deng Xiaoping has no grave or tomb. Following his wish, some of his organs were donated and the rest of his body was cremated. His ashes were scattered at sea.
China’s Economic Reforms Cannot, Should Not Stop
Deng Xiaoping, novelization of Wade-Giles Teng Hsiao-p’ing, (born August 22, 1904, Guang’an, Sichuan Province, China – died February 19, 1997, Beijing), Chinese Communist leader who was the most powerful figure in the People’s Republic of China from the late 1970s into the 1997s until he tried to die and many Communists from 1997 or he died. he pledged to incorporate elements of the free enterprise system and other reforms into the Chinese economy.
The son of a farmer, Deng studied in France (1920-24), where he became active in the communist movement and in the Soviet Union (1925-26). He then returned to China and later became a leading political and military organizer in the Jiangxi Soviet, an autonomous communist enclave in southwest China that had been established in 1931 by Mao Zedong. After the Communists were expelled by Nationalist forces under Chiang Kai-shek in 1934, Deng participated in the arduous Long March of the Chinese Communists (1934–35) to a new base in Shaanxi Province in northwest China. From 1937 to 1945, he served as a commissar (political officer) of a branch of the Eighth Route Communist Army, at which time he was appointed secretary of the Central Committee of the Chinese Communist Party (CCP). Deng also served as chief commissar of the Second Communist Field Army during the Chinese Civil War (1947–49). After the Communist takeover of China in 1949, he became a regional party leader in southwest China. In 1952, he was summoned to Beijing and became Deputy Prime Minister. He rose quickly to become General Secretary of the CPC in 1954 and a member of the Political Bureau in 1955.
From the mid-1950s, Deng was an important decision-maker in foreign and domestic affairs. He became close allies of pragmatic leaders such as Liu Shaoqi, who emphasized the use of material incentives and the training of skilled technical and managerial elites in the pursuit of China’s economic development. Deng thus came into increasing conflict with Mao, who emphasized egalitarian policies and revolutionary enthusiasm as the key to economic growth, in contrast to Deng’s emphasis on individual self-interest.
Deng was attacked during the Cultural Revolution (1966-76) by radical Mao supporters. He was stripped of his high party and government posts sometime in the years 1967-69, after which he disappeared from the public eye. In 1973, however, Deng was reinstated under the patronage of Prime Minister Zhou Enlai and appointed Deputy Prime Minister, and in 1975 he became Vice Chairman of the Party Central Committee, member of the Political Bureau (Politburo) and Chief of Staff. As the effective head of government in the months leading up to Zhou’s death, he was widely considered Zhou’s likely successor. After Zhou’s death in January 1976, however, the Gang of Four—the radical pro-Mao elite during the Cultural Revolution—succeeded in ousting Deng from leadership again. It was not until Mao’s death in September 1976 and the subsequent fall from power of the Gang of Four that Deng was rehabilitated, this time with the consent of Hua Guofeng, Mao’s chosen successor to the leadership of China.
Crossing The River By Feeling The Stones: Deng Xiaoping In The Making Of Modern China
By July 1977, Deng had returned to his senior posts. He soon began a battle with Hua for control of the party and government. Deng’s superior political skills and broad base of support soon led Hua to hand over the prime ministership and presidency to Deng’s protégés in 1980-81. Zhao Ziyang became the government’s prime minister, and Hu Yaobang became the CPC’s general secretary; both men looked to Deng for guidance.
From that point on, Deng continued to carry out his own policies for China’s economic development. Operating by consensus, compromise, and persuasion, Deng carried out important reforms in virtually every aspect of China’s political, economic, and social life. His most important social reform was the institution of the world’s most stringent family planning program—the one-child policy—to control China’s growing population. He introduced decentralized economic management and rational and flexible long-term planning to achieve efficient and controlled economic growth. China’s peasants were given individual control and responsibility for their production and profits, a policy that resulted in a large increase in agricultural production within a few years of its inception in 1981. Deng emphasized individual responsibility in economic decision-making, material incentives as a reward for industry and initiative, and the building of qualified and well-educated cadres of leaders and the development of managers and leaders in China. It freed many industrial enterprises from central government control and supervision and gave factory managers the authority to determine production levels and seek profits for their enterprises. In foreign affairs, Deng strengthened China’s commercial and cultural ties with the West and opened up Chinese business to foreign investment.
Deng avoided the most visible leadership positions in the party and government. But he was a member of the powerful Politburo Standing Committee and maintained control of the armed forces by virtue of his chairmanship of the CPC Central Military Commission. He was also the vice chairman of the CPC. Because of his positions and the weight and authority of his voice in the party, he remained China’s most important policy maker throughout the 1980s. In 1987, Deng resigned from the CPC Central Committee, relinquishing his seat on the Politburo and its dominant Standing Committee. In doing so, he forced similar retirements from many old party leaders who remained opposed or resistant to his reforms.
Deng faced a critical test of his leadership in April-June 1989. Zhao replaced the excessively liberal Hu as CPC General Secretary in 1987. Hu’s death in April 1989 triggered a series of student demonstrations in Beijing’s Tiananmen Square demanding greater political freedom and a more democratic government. After some hesitation, Deng supported those in the CCP leadership who favored the use of force to suppress protesters, and in June, the army crushed demonstrations in the Tiananmen Square incident with significant loss of life. Zhao was replaced as party leader by the more authoritarian Jiang Zemin, to whom Deng handed over the chairmanship of the Military Commission in 1989. At the time, Deng had no formal position in the Communist leadership, but he still retained the highest authority in the party. Although his direct involvement in government waned in the 1990s, he maintained his influence until his death in 1997 from complications of Parkinson’s disease and a lung infection. At Deng’s wish, some of his organs were donated, his body was cremated, and his ashes were scattered at sea.
Deng Xiaoping’s Reforms Of Chinese. Essay Sample.
Deng restored China to domestic stability and economic growth after the disastrous excesses of the Cultural Revolution. Under his leadership, China enjoyed a rapidly growing economy, rising living standards, greatly expanded personal and cultural freedoms, and growing ties with the world economy. Deng also left behind a mildly authoritarian government that remained committed to the CCP’s one-party rule even as it relied on free-market mechanisms to turn China into a developed country. Chinese postage stamps commemorating Deng Xiaoping, a leader widely credited with modernizing the country and turning it into a formidable economic powerhouse, 1998. Shutterstock
James Laurenceson does not work for, consult with, own stock in, or receive funding from any company or organization that would benefit from this article, and has disclosed no relevant affiliations other than his academic appointment.
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