How Big Is Mac Address Space – An Internet Protocol Version 6 address (IPv6 address) is a numeric label used to identify and locate the network interface of a computer or network node participating in a computer network using IPv6. IP addresses are included in the packet header to indicate the source and destination of each packet. The IP address is used to make decisions about routing IP packets to other networks.
IPv6 is the successor to the first address system, Internet Protocol version 4 (IPv4). Unlike IPv4, which defined an IP address as a 32-bit value, IPv6 addresses are 128 bits in size. Thus, by comparison, IPv6 has a large address space.
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IPv6 addresses are classified according to the main addressing and routing methods common in networks: unicast addresses, anycast addresses, and multicast addresses.
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One address identifies one network interface. The Internet Protocol assigns packets to a unicast address for that particular interface.
Each cast address is assigned to a group of interfaces, usually belonging to different nodes. A packet for which a cast address is delivered to only one of the member interfaces, usually the nearest host, as defined by the remote routing protocol. Any cast addresses are not easily identifiable, have the same format as unicast addresses, and differ only in their presence on the network in multiple locations. Almost any unicast address can be used as any broadcast address.
A multicast address is also used by multiple hosts that obtain a destination multicast address by participating in router-to-router multicast protocols. A packet containing a multicast address is delivered to all interfaces that have joined the multicast group. IPv6 does not implement address broadcasts. The traditional role of broadcasting is performed by multicasting to a multicast group of all neighboring nodes ff02::1 . However, using a group with all nodes is not recommended, and most IPv6 protocols use a dedicated local broadcast group to avoid interfering with all interfaces on the network.
For each major addressing and routing technology, various addressing formats are identified by dividing the 128 address bits into subgroups and using set rules to associate the values of these bit groups with specific addressing functions.
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Unicast and anycast addresses are usually composed of two logical parts: a 64-bit network prefix used for routing and a 64-bit interface identifier used to identify the host’s network interface.
The network prefix (router prefix plus subnet ID) is contained in the most significant 64 bits of the address. The size of the route prefix can vary; larger prefix size means smaller subnet ID size. The bits of the Subnet ID field are available to network administrators to define subnets within the given network. A 64-bit port ID is automatically generated at random, obtained from a DHCPv6 server, or assigned manually. (Historically, it was automatically derived from the interface’s MAC address in modified EUI-64 format, but this method is now deprecated for privacy reasons.)
The prefix field has the binary value 1111110. The L bit is one of the internal addresses; an address range with L set to zero is currently undefined. The random field is randomly selected once, at the beginning of the /48 route prefix.
The port area address is also based on the port ID, but uses a different network prefix format.
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The prefix field has the binary value 1111111010. The following 54 zeros make the total network prefixes the same for all concatenated local addresses (fe80:: / 64 local address prefixes), making them unreachable.
The sc(ope) field has the double value 0010 (link-local). The multicast addresses of requested nodes are calculated as a function of the node’s unicast addresses or any broadcast addresses. The multicast address of the requested node is created by copying the last 24 bits of the unicast or anycast address to the last 24 bits of the multicast address.
The standards provide flexibility in the representation of IPv6 addresses. The complete representation of eight groups of four digits can be simplified by several methods, removing parts of the representation. In general, presentations are kept as short as possible. However, this approach complicates some common operations, namely searching for a specific address or pattern of addresses in text documents or streams and comparing addresses to determine equality. To alleviate these problems, the IETF has defined a legal format for mapping IPv6 addresses to text:
These methods can result in very short representations of IPv6 addresses. For example, a localhost (loopback) address, 0:0:0:0:0:0:0:1 , and an unspecified IPv6 address, 0:0:0:0:0:0:0:0 , are reduced to ::1 and :: , respectively.
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During the transition of the Internet from IPv4 to IPv6, it is common to operate in a mixed address environment. For such use cases, a special notation has been adopted that indicates IPv4 requests and IPv6-compatible addresses by writing the least significant 32 bits of the address in the familiar IPv4 dot notation, while the most significant 96 bits are written in IPv6 format. For example, an IPv6 address mapped to IPv4 ::ffff:c000:0280 is written as ::ffff:192.0.2.128 , which clearly indicates the original IPv4 address mapped to IPv6.
The IPv6 network uses an address block, which is a group of IPv6 addresses whose size is two. The leading set of address bits is the same for all machines on the giv network and is called the network address or route prefix.
Address ranges are written in CIDR notation. The network is identified by the first address in the field (ding in all zeros), a slash (/), and a decimal point equal to the size of the prefix bits. For example, the network was written as 2001:db8:1234:: / 48 starting at address 2001:db8:1234:0000:0000:0000:0000:0000 and ds at 2001:db8:1234:ffff:ff:ff:ff.
The routing prefix of an interface address can be specified directly with the address using CIDR notation. For example, configuring an interface with address 2001:db8:a::123 connected to subnet 2001:db8:a:: / 64 is written as 2001:db8:a::123 / 64 .
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The size of the address block is specified by entering a slash (/) followed by a decimal number where the value is the lgth of the network prefix in bits. For example, an address block with 48 bits in the prefix is represented by / 48 . Such a limitation has 2
Address The smaller the value of the network prefix, the larger the block: a / 21 block is 8 times larger than a / 24 block.
Colon (:) characters in IPv6 addresses may conflict with the established syntax of resource identifiers, such as URIs and URLs. A colon is commonly used to end the host URL before the port number.
To reduce this conflict, the actual IPv6 addresses are enclosed in square brackets in such resource identifiers, for example:
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For addresses without global scope (as defined in § Address range), and especially for associated local addresses, the choice of network interface sding packet may depend on the region to which the address belongs. The same address can be valid in different regions and is used by different hosts in each of these regions. Even if the same address is not used in different zones, the address prefixes of the addresses in these zones can still be the same, which means that the operating system cannot choose the broadcast interface based on information in the routing table (which depends on the prefix).
To disambiguate e-mail addresses, a location record must be added to the address. The location index is separated from the address by the perct (%) symbol.
While numeric location indexes must be global, a location index can also be an implementation-dependent string. Link address
The first (using the interface name) is standard on most Unix-like operating systems (e.g. BSD, Linux, macOS). Finally (using interface numbers) there is a standard syntax on Microsoft Windows, but where support for this syntax is required, it is also available on other operating systems.
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BSD-based operating systems (including macOS) also support an alternative, non-standard syntax, where the index of the numeric location is placed in the second 16-bit word of the address. For example:
In all operating systems mentioned above, the zone index of bound local addresses refers to the interface, not the zone. Since multiple interfaces can be in the same zone (eg when connected to the same network), in practice two addresses with different zone identifiers can be identical, pointing to a host on the same link.
Wh is used in Uniform Resource Identifiers (URIs), using the perct symbol causes a syntax conflict, so it must be avoided with perct encoding,
On Microsoft Windows operating systems, IPv4 addresses are valid local identifiers in Uniform Naming Convtion (UNC) pathnames. However, a colon is an illegal character in a UNC path name. Therefore, the use of IPv6 addresses is also illegal in UNC names. For this reason, Microsoft implemented a translation algorithm to remap an IPv6 address in the form of a domain that can be used in UNC paths. To this end, Microsoft registered and reserved the second-level domain ipv6-literal.net
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