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Food plays an important role in fulfilling human biological needs, as shown by Maslow’s hierarchy pyramid. Usually food is prepared in a home where families enjoy their meals together.
How Are Food Contact Surfaces To Be Handled Between Uses
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However, recent changes in people’s lifestyles have moved cooking activities from homes to areas outside where there is contact with food consumption. Such arrangements include restaurants such as restaurants and street food. Changing lifestyles have also increased the number of people who eat food from these companies. A consequence of this change is the emergence of foodborne diseases due to improper food hygiene (Ismail et al. 2016). Therefore, it is necessary to ensure the safety of food for human consumption through food safety.
Food safety is a specialty that describes the proper ways to store, prepare, and store food to prevent the transmission of foodborne illnesses. An important aspect of food safety is the personal hygiene of food handlers when they come into contact with food. Food safety has become a major public health concern for a number of reasons. For example, the rise in lifestyle diseases has increased awareness of the importance of healthy eating.
As a result, the consumption of fresh fruit and ready-made foods has increased significantly. As much as eating these foods is healthier because of their high nutritional value, the preparation of freshly cut salads does not involve heat processes that are essential to destroy bacteria. Precooked foods also cannot reach temperatures high enough to kill disease-causing microorganisms. The increasing popularity of fast and raw foods such as “rare” burgers and ice cream increases the potential for food contamination.
Providing food to people is an important responsibility. The UK Food Standards Agency (2017) reported that more than half a million deaths each year are the result of bad food or food contamination with pathogenic bacteria. According to the World Health Organization (WHO), one in ten people become ill from eating contaminated food, leading to the death of around 420,000 people each year (WHO 2016).
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Children under the age of five are susceptible to foodborne illnesses. Therefore, it is necessary to adhere to the highest standards of hygiene and recommended food processing procedures. The human food chain starts from the farm to the point of consumption, in many cases the food is first prepared on the eater’s plate. Food contamination can occur at all stages of production, transport, storage and preparation.
Therefore, it is the responsibility of everyone in the production chain to maintain food safety. Maintaining high standards of personal hygiene by washing hands and using clean kitchen utensils to prepare food is essential to food safety.
The primary purpose of this laboratory is to compare the effectiveness of various equipment used for washing and cleaning food contact areas. The second objective was to determine the possibility of cooking a burger “rare” safely on the grill and to determine the shortest time required for the internal heat of a patty to reach the minimum temperatures recommended by the WHO.
The antibacterial detergent was found to be the best cleaning solution with 0 RLU after treatment as shown in Table 1. Bleach, on the other hand, was the least effective detergent because the RLU measurements were higher after using the detergents. Hot water is the best solution. The RLU reading was higher than for uncoated plastic.
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The average temperature data for the burger bun was plotted over time as shown in Figure 1. It turned out that the starting temperature was approx.
Based on the results of cleaning food-related materials, it can be concluded that antibacterial cleaning agents are the most effective cleaning agents. However, a limitation of the luminometric process is the lack of comparative measurements for each surface cleaned with different cleaning agents. Such a process facilitates statistical analysis to determine whether there is a significant difference in the cleaning agents’ effectiveness.
Although the ATP method provides a quick and cost-effective way to check the cleanliness of food contact surfaces, more specific methods are needed to assess the cleanliness of the area. It was concluded that it is not possible to cook minced meat at the low temperatures recommended by the WHO on a grill.
The ATP method for quantifying bioluminescence is based on the production of light in the presence of ATP. The chemical reaction involves oxidative decarboxylation of the compound luciferin in the presence of ATP (Osimani et al. 2014). The enzyme luciferase accelerates this reaction. ATP is an important energy molecule found in food and living things. In this way, the amount of light is equal to the amount of ATP.
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The results of this experiment show that although the skin incision looks clean to the naked eye, there may be many bacteria on the skin. Hand sanitization of handling food particles does not guarantee surface cleanliness. Therefore, it is necessary to clean food contact areas to eliminate or reduce the number of disease-causing microbes (Garden-Robinson 2012).
However, sterilization does not work in a sterile environment because such conditions are not available in food service facilities due to sterilization costs. But the right cleaning agents can ensure that the food is clean. Different cleaning agents require different properties, contact time and operating temperatures for their effectiveness. Studies show that combined products, for example detergents and disinfectants, need separate cleaning and disinfection functions. Two different solutions must be used for cleaning and disinfection.
Hand hygiene should follow five main steps, the first of which is to remove large amounts of food. The next step involves cleaning with a suitable detergent and water at approx. 45°C
Keeping Food Contact Surfaces Safe
C after washing with clean, warm water. The fourth cleansing hot water is about 77
C for at least 30 seconds (Garden-Robinson 2012). Alternatively, a suitable chemical cleaning solution can be used, e.g. chlorine, iodine or quaternary ammonium. However, reasonable judgments of these results should be made based on the manufacturer’s recommendations.
The standard chlorine solution for disinfecting areas in contact with food is 25 ppm at 48.
C (Garden-Robinson 2012). On the other hand, iodine solutions for cleaning should have from 12.5 to 25 ppm at a very low level of 23.
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Bleach, on the other hand, is the least effective cleaning agent, while warm water produces mild results. The active ingredient in bleach is chlorine, which is one of the recommended chemical cleaners. However, the exact details of the bleach used to clean the cutting board are not specified. It is possible that the wrong amount of bleach was used to clean the cutting board, hindering the effectiveness of the solutions.
The effectiveness of cleaning agents varies depending on the effect of the chemicals on the proteins in the bacterial cell walls. These chemicals disrupt the structure of bacterial membranes and cell walls, disrupting vital processes that sustain life, leading to the death of the bacterium (Srey, Jahid & Ha 2013).
The RLU reading was higher than for uncoated plastic. This finding can be seen in the formation of cracks on the surface of the cutting board during cutting. These cracks can contain leftover food, creating the perfect environment for bacteria to breed. During cleaning, it is very difficult for the cleaner to remove all dirt from the cracks, so the higher RLU values are recorded.
These results are consistent with those published by Osimani et al. (2014) show that cleaning cutting boards is not easy. Osimani et al. (2014) compared the difficulty of cleaning porous surfaces to nylon cutting, where superficial cuts and cracks are created that make cleaning difficult. Therefore, upper reference limits apply when using the ATP bioluminescence test for purity.
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Osimani et al. (2014) reported RLU readings per cubic meters for concrete slabs (made of plastic) measured over a period of eight months extended over time. This information shows that the wear of the cutting board increases with the formation of cracks, which increases the difficulty of cleaning. ATP bioluminescence was detected
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